This work was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation “Coordinated Research in Earth Systems and Climate: Experiments, kNowledge, Dissemination and Outreach (CRESCENDO)” project under Grant Agreement 641816. Additional funding was received by the Advanced Earth System Model Evaluation for CMIP (EVal4CMIP) project funded by the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers. A.K. is supported by the Academy of Finland (Grants 286298 and 319397). The authors acknowledge the World Climate Research Program’s (WCRP’s) Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM), which is responsible for CMIP, and thank the modeling groups (Table 2) for providing their model output. We thank Veronika Eyring (DLR) and Marika Holland (National Center for Atmospheric Research) for their contributions to the study, François Massonnet (Université Catholique de Louvain) for fruitful discussions on an earlier version of the manuscript, and Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, and Sabrina Zechlau (DLR) for technical support with the ESMValTool. The authors also thank the three anonymous reviewers and editor James Screen for their helpful comments.
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