Variability and Trends of Total Precipitation and Snowfall over the United States and Canada

View More View Less
  • 1 State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • | 2 Global Climate Laboratory, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina
© Get Permissions
Full access

Abstract

The biases and large-scale inhomogeneities in the time series of measured precipitation and snowfall over the United States and Canada are discussed and analyzed. The spatial statistical characteristics of monthly and annual snowfall and total precipitation are investigated and parameterized. After adjustments and selection of the “best” network, reliable “first guess” estimates of North American snowfall and precipitation are obtained. Century-long time series of unbiased annual precipitation over the regions to the south of 55°N and 40-year time series of unbiased area-averaged annual precipitation and snowfall for all of North America are developed. The analysis of their trends shows the following.

1) During the last 100 years, annual precipitation has increased in southern Canada (south of 55°N) by 13% and in the contiguous United States by 4%; however, the main domain of this century-scale precipitation increase is eastern Canada and adjacent to it northern regions of the United States.

2) Up to a 20% increase has occurred in annual snowfall and rainfall during the last four decades in Canada north of 55°N.

The relationships between century-long precipitation time series over North America with Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature and the South Oscillation index (SOI) are investigated. It is shown that ENSO (negative anomaly of SOI) is usually accompanied by an increase of precipitation whenever it affects the United States (especially in the southwestern region of the country).

Abstract

The biases and large-scale inhomogeneities in the time series of measured precipitation and snowfall over the United States and Canada are discussed and analyzed. The spatial statistical characteristics of monthly and annual snowfall and total precipitation are investigated and parameterized. After adjustments and selection of the “best” network, reliable “first guess” estimates of North American snowfall and precipitation are obtained. Century-long time series of unbiased annual precipitation over the regions to the south of 55°N and 40-year time series of unbiased area-averaged annual precipitation and snowfall for all of North America are developed. The analysis of their trends shows the following.

1) During the last 100 years, annual precipitation has increased in southern Canada (south of 55°N) by 13% and in the contiguous United States by 4%; however, the main domain of this century-scale precipitation increase is eastern Canada and adjacent to it northern regions of the United States.

2) Up to a 20% increase has occurred in annual snowfall and rainfall during the last four decades in Canada north of 55°N.

The relationships between century-long precipitation time series over North America with Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature and the South Oscillation index (SOI) are investigated. It is shown that ENSO (negative anomaly of SOI) is usually accompanied by an increase of precipitation whenever it affects the United States (especially in the southwestern region of the country).

Save