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Basinwide Connections of Upper-Ocean Temperature Variability in the Equatorial Indian Ocean

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  • 1 a State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • | 2 b University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • | 3 c Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences and Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia
  • | 4 d Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, China
  • | 5 e Climate Prediction Center, NCEP/NWS/NOAA, College Park, Maryland
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Abstract

In this article, the interannual variability of upper-ocean temperature in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) and its basinwide connections are investigated using 58-yr (1958–2015) comprehensive monthly mean ocean reanalysis data. Three leading modes of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis dominate the variability of upper-ocean temperature in the equatorial IO over a wide range of time scales. A coherent interannual band within the first two EOF modes identifies an oscillation between the zonally tilting thermocline across the equatorial IO in its peak phases and basinwide displacement of the equatorial thermocline in its transitional phases. Consistent with the recharge oscillation paradigm, this oscillation is inherent in the equatorial IO with a quasi-periodicity around 15 months, in which the wind-induced off-equatorial Rossby waves near 5°–10°S provide the phase-transition mechanism. This intrinsic IO oscillation provides the biennial component in the observed IOD variations. The third leading mode shows a nonlinear long-term trend of the upper-ocean temperature, including the near-surface warming along the equatorial Indian Ocean, accompanied by cooling trend in the lower thermocline originating farther south. Such vertical contrary trends may lead to an enhanced stratification in the equatorial IO.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Ge Song, songge@mail.iap.ac.cn; Rongcai Ren, rrc@lasg.iap.ac.cn

Abstract

In this article, the interannual variability of upper-ocean temperature in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) and its basinwide connections are investigated using 58-yr (1958–2015) comprehensive monthly mean ocean reanalysis data. Three leading modes of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis dominate the variability of upper-ocean temperature in the equatorial IO over a wide range of time scales. A coherent interannual band within the first two EOF modes identifies an oscillation between the zonally tilting thermocline across the equatorial IO in its peak phases and basinwide displacement of the equatorial thermocline in its transitional phases. Consistent with the recharge oscillation paradigm, this oscillation is inherent in the equatorial IO with a quasi-periodicity around 15 months, in which the wind-induced off-equatorial Rossby waves near 5°–10°S provide the phase-transition mechanism. This intrinsic IO oscillation provides the biennial component in the observed IOD variations. The third leading mode shows a nonlinear long-term trend of the upper-ocean temperature, including the near-surface warming along the equatorial Indian Ocean, accompanied by cooling trend in the lower thermocline originating farther south. Such vertical contrary trends may lead to an enhanced stratification in the equatorial IO.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Ge Song, songge@mail.iap.ac.cn; Rongcai Ren, rrc@lasg.iap.ac.cn
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