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The MJO–QBO Relationship in a GCM with Stratospheric Nudging

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  • 1 a Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | 2 b NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York
  • | 3 c Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York
  • | 4 d Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York
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Abstract

Observational studies show a strong connection between the intraseasonal Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) and the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO): the boreal winter MJO is stronger, more predictable, and has different teleconnections when the QBO in the lower stratosphere is easterly versus westerly. Despite the strength of the observed connection, global climate models do not produce an MJO–QBO link. Here the authors use a current-generation ocean–atmosphere coupled NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model (Model E2.1) to examine the MJO–QBO link. To represent the QBO with minimal bias, the model zonal-mean stratospheric zonal and meridional winds are relaxed to reanalysis fields from 1980 to 2017. The model troposphere, including the MJO, is allowed to freely evolve. The model with stratospheric nudging captures QBO signals well, including QBO temperature anomalies. However, an ensemble of nudged simulations still lacks an MJO–QBO connection.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Zane Martin, zkmartin@rams.colostate.edu

Abstract

Observational studies show a strong connection between the intraseasonal Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) and the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO): the boreal winter MJO is stronger, more predictable, and has different teleconnections when the QBO in the lower stratosphere is easterly versus westerly. Despite the strength of the observed connection, global climate models do not produce an MJO–QBO link. Here the authors use a current-generation ocean–atmosphere coupled NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model (Model E2.1) to examine the MJO–QBO link. To represent the QBO with minimal bias, the model zonal-mean stratospheric zonal and meridional winds are relaxed to reanalysis fields from 1980 to 2017. The model troposphere, including the MJO, is allowed to freely evolve. The model with stratospheric nudging captures QBO signals well, including QBO temperature anomalies. However, an ensemble of nudged simulations still lacks an MJO–QBO connection.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Zane Martin, zkmartin@rams.colostate.edu
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