We thank Dr. Robbins M. Church for carefully reading through the manuscript and giving useful suggestions. The first author also thanks Drs. David Karoly and Lance Leslie for their encouragement in finishing this work. We sincerely thank one anonymous reviewer for his valuable comments that helped in the overall improvement of the quality of this paper.
Allen, R. G., L. S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56.
Avissar, R. 1992. Conceptual aspects of a statistical-dynamical approach to represent landscape subgrid-scale heterogeneities in atmospheric models. J. Geophys. Res. 97:2729–2742.
Brutsaert, W. H. 1995. Some facets of landsurface/atmosphere interaction and the scaling problem in hydrology. J. Japanese Soc. Hydrol. Water Resour. 8:13–18.
Caldwell, M. M., T. E. Dawson, and J. H. Richards. 1998. Hydraulic lift: Consequences of water efflux from the roots of plants. Oecologia 79:1–5.
Capehart, W. J. and T. N. Carlson. 1994. Estimating near-surface soil moisture availability using a meteorologically driven soil-water profile model. J. Hydrol. 160:1–20.
Davey, C. A. and R. A. Pielke Sr.. 2005. Microclimate exposures of surface-based weather stations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 86:497–504.
Dickinson, R. E., A. Henderson-Sellers, and P. Kennedy. 1993. Biosphere atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) version 1e as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-387+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 72 pp.
Feddes, R. A., P. J. Kowalik, and H. Zarandy. 1978. Simulation of Field Water Use and Crop Yield. Simulation Monogr., PUDOC, 189 pp.
Henderson-Sellers, A. and A. J. Pitman. 1992. Land-surface schemes for future climate models: Specification, aggregation, and heterogeneity. J. Geophys. Res. 97:2687–2696.
Koster, R. D. and M. J. Suarez. 1992. Modeling the land surface boundary in climate models as a composite of independent vegetation stands. J. Geophys. Res. 97:2697–2715.
Panin, G. N., G. Tetzlaff, and A. Raabe. 1998. Inhomogeneity of the land surface and problems in the parameterization of surface fluxes in natural conditions. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 60:163–178.
Ren, D. 2001. Scaling issues in the calculation of surface latent and sensible heat fluxes blue river basin using SHEELS model. M.S. thesis, University of Oklahoma, 86 pp.
Ren, D., M. Xue, and A. Henderson-Sellers. 2004. The effects of hydraulic lift in simulating superficial soil moisture for vegetated surfaces under dry conditions. J. Hydrometeor. 5:1181–1191.
Rodriguez-Camino, E. and R. Avissar. 1999. Effective parameters for surface heat fluxes in heterogeneous terrain. Tellus 51A:387–399.
Saxton, K. E., W. J. Rawls, J. S. Romberger, and R. I. Papendick. 1986. Estimating generalized soil water characteristics from texture. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 50:1031–1036.
Seth, A., F. Giorgi, and R. E. Dickinson. 1994. Simulating fluxes from heterogeneous land surfaces: Explicit subgrid method employing the biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS). J. Geophys. Res. 99:18651–18667.
Smith, R. E., K. R. Smettem, P. Broadbridge, and D. A. Woolhiser. 2002. Infiltration Theory for Hydrologic Applications. Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 5, Amer. Geophys. Union, 212 pp.
Wetzel, P. J. and J. T. Chang. 1988. Evapotranspiration from nonuniform surfaces: A first approach for short-term numerical weather prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev. 116:600–621.