This study is financially supported by the NASA Project NNX09AN10G and the Bureau of Reclamation. Additional support was provided by the Jackson School of Geosciences at the University of Texas at Austin. We greatly appreciate the high quality station data provided by Dr. Kenneth Kunkel at the NOAA/National Climatic Data Center. Publication authorized by the Director, Bureau of Economic Geology, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin.
Aguilar, E., and Coauthors, 2009: Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in western central Africa, Guinea Conakry, and Zimbabwe, 1955–2006. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D02115, doi:10.1029/2008JD011010.
Alexander, L. V., and Coauthors, 2006: Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05109, doi:10.1029/2005JD006290.
DeGaetano, A. T., , and R. J. Allen, 2002: Trends in twentieth-century temperature extremes across the United States. J. Climate, 15, 3188–3205.
Easterling, D. R., , J. L. Evans, , P. Y. Groisman, , T. R. Karl, , K. E. Kunkel, , and P. Ambenje, 2000: Observed variability and trends in extreme climate events: A brief review. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 417–425.
Fannin, B., 2012: Updated 2011 Texas agricultural drought losses total $7.62 billion. AgriLife Today, 21 March. [Available online at http://today.agrilife.org/2012/03/21/updated-2011-texas-agricultural-drought-losses-total-7-62-billion/.]
Frich, P., and Coauthors, 1996: North Atlantic climatological dataset (NACD version 1): Final report. Danish Meteorological Institute Scientific Rep., 46 pp.
Frich, P., , L. V. Alexander, , P. Della-Marta, , B. Gleason, , M. Haylock, , A. M. G. K. Tank, , and T. Peterson, 2002: Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Res., 19, 193–212.
Guttman, N. B., 1999: Accepting the standardized precipitation index: A calculation algorithm. J. Amer. Water Resour. Assoc., 35, 311–322.
Hu, Y., , W. Dong, , and Y. He, 2010: Impact of land surface forcings on mean and extreme temperature in eastern China. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D19117, doi:10.1029/2009JD013368.
Jones, P. D., , M. New, , D. E. Parker, , S. Martin, , and I. G. Rigor, 1999: Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years. Rev. Geophys., 37, 173–199.
Karl, T. R., , G. A. Meehl, , C. D. Miller, , S. J. Hassol, , A. M. Waple, , and W. L. Murray, 2008: Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. Regions of focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands. U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3, 180 pp.
Karl, T. R., , R. M. Melillo, , and T. Peterson, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Cambridge University Press, 188 pp.
Kiktev, D., , D. M. H. Sexton, , L. Alexander, , and C. K. Folland, 2003: Comparison of modeled and observed trends in indices of daily climate extremes. J. Climate, 16, 3560–3571.
Kunkel, K. E., , S. A. Changnon, , B. C. Reinke, , and R. W. Arritt, 1996: The July 1995 heat wave in the Midwest: A climatic perspective and critical weather factors. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 1507–1518.
Kunkel, K. E., , K. Andsager, , and D. R. Easterling, 1999: Long-term trends in extreme precipitation events over the conterminous United States and Canada. J. Climate, 12, 2515–2527.
Manton, M. J., and Coauthors, 2001: Trends in extreme daily rainfall and temperature in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific: 1961–1998. Int. J. Climatol., 21, 269–284.
McGuire, V. L., 2009: Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2007, 2005–06, and 2006–07. USGS Scientific Investigation Rep. 2009–5019, 18 pp.
McKee, T. B., , N. J. Doesken, , and J. Kleist, 1993: The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Proc. Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Boston, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 179–184.
Meehl, G. A., , C. Tebaldi, , G. Walton, , D. Easterling, , and L. McDaniel, 2009: Relative increase of record high maximum temperatures compared to record low minimum temperatures in the U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L23701, doi:10.1029/2009GL040736.
Mishra, A. K., , M. Ozger, , and V. P. Singh, 2011a: Wet and dry spell analysis of global climate model-generated precipitation using power laws and wavelet transforms. Stochastic Environ. Res. Risk Assess., 25, 517–535.
Mishra, A. K., , V. P. Singh, , and M. Özger, 2011b: Seasonal streamflow extremes in Texas river basins: Uncertainty, trends, and teleconnections. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D08108, doi:10.1029/2010JD014597.
Ozger, M., , A. K. Mishra, , and V. P. Singh, 2011: Scaling characteristics of precipitation data over Texas. J. Hydrol. Eng., 16, 1009–1016.
Pryor, S. C., , J. A. Howe, , and K. E. Kunkel, 2009: How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? Int. J. Climatol., 29, 31–45.
Quiring, S. M., 2009: Developing objective operational definitions for monitoring drought. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48, 1217–1229.
Russo, S., , and A. Sterl, 2011: Global changes in indices describing moderate temperature extremes from the daily output of a climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D03104, doi:10.1029/2010JD014727.
Scanlon, B. R., , C. C. Faunt, , L. Longuevergne, , R. C. Reedy, , W. M. Alley, , V. L. McGuire, , and P. B. McMahon, 2012: Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 9320–9325.
Tank, A., , and G. P. Konnen, 2003: Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–99. J. Climate, 16, 3665–3680.
Tebaldi, C., , K. Hayhoe, , J. M. Arblaster, , and G. A. Meehl, 2007: Going to the extremes: An intercomparison of model-simulated historical and future changes in extreme events (vol 79, pg 185, 2006). Climatic Change, 79, 185–211; Corrigendum, 82, 233–234.
Trenberth, K. E., , A. Dai, , R. M. Rasmussen, , and D. B. Parsons, 2003: The changing character of precipitation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 1205–1217.
Vincent, L. A., , and E. Mekis, 2006: Changes in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices for Canada over the twentieth century. Atmos.–Ocean, 44, 177–193.
Vincent, L. A., and Coauthors, 2005: Observed trends in indices of daily temperature extremes in South America 1960–2000. J. Climate, 18, 5011–5023.
Vincent, L. A., and Coauthors, 2011: Observed trends in indices of daily and extreme temperature and precipitation for the countries of the western Indian Ocean, 1961–2008. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D10108, doi:10.1029/2010JD015303.
Yan, Z., and Coauthors, 2002: Trends of extreme temperatures in Europe and China based on daily observations. Climatic Change, 53, 355–392.
Yao, C., , S. Yang, , W. Qian, , Z. Lin, , and M. Wen, 2008: Regional summer precipitation events in Asia and their changes in the past decades. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D17107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009603.