Funds for this research were provided by the Higher Commission of Pakistan under Project 1-28/HEC/HRD/2011/740 entitled “Climate Change Extremes for a Semi-Arid Punjab, Pakistan.” The author is thankful to the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback. Presubmission review and inputs from Mohammad Safeeq (OSU) are highly appreciated. Valuable contributions from Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Wajid Farhad, and Farhan Saleem are acknowledged too.
Abbas, F., A. Ahmad, M. Safeeq, A. Ali, , F. Saleem, , H. M. Hammad, and & W. Farhad, 2013: Changes in precipitation extremes over arid to semi-arid and sub-humid Punjab, Pakistan. Theor. Appl. Climatol., doi:10.1007/s00704-013-0988-8, in press.
Abrol, Y. P., and K. T. Ingram, 1996. Effects of higher day and night temperatures on growth and yields of some crop plants. Global climate Change and Agricultural Production: Direct and Indirect Effects of Changing Hydrological, Pedological and Plant Physiological Processes, F. Bazzaz and W. Sombroek, Eds., John Wiley & Sons, 123–140.
Ahas, R., and A. Aasa, 2006: The effects of climate change on the phenology of selected Estonian plant, bird and fish populations. Int. J. Biometeor., 51, 17–26.
Alley, R. B., and Coauthors, 2007: Summary for policymakers. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 1–13.
Beniston, M., and M. Rebetez, 1996: Regional behavior of minimum temperatures in Switzerland for the period 1979–1993. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 53, 231–243.
Bonsal, B. R., X. Zhang, L. A. Vincent, and W. D. Hogg, 2001: Characteristics of daily and extreme temperatures over Canada. J. Climate, 14, 1959–1976.
Burke, J. J., 1990. High temperature stress and adaptation in crops. Stress Response in Plants: Adaptation and Acclimation Mechanisms, R. G. Alscher and J. R. Cummings, Eds., Wiley-Liss, 295–309.
Burke, J. J., J. R. Mahan, and J. L. Hatfield, 1988: Crop specific thermal kinetic windows in relation to wheat and cotton biomass production. Agron. J., 80, 553–556.
Cheema, M. A., M. Farooq, R. Ahmad, and H. Munir, 2006: Climatic trends in Faisalabad (Pakistan) over the last 60 years (1945-2004). J. Agric. Soc. Sci., 2, 42–45.
Cheema, S. B., G. Rasul, G. Ali, and D. H. Kazmi, 2012: A comparison of minimum temperature trends with model projections. Pak. J. Meteor., 8, 39–52.
Cui, X. F., H. F. Gral, B. Langmann, W. Chen, and R. Huang, 2006: Simulated impacts of land cover change on summer climate in the Tibetan Plateau. Global Planet. Change, 54, 33–56.
Elagib, N. A., and M. G. Mansell, 2000: Recent trends and anomalies in mean seasonal and annual temperatures over Sudan. J. Arid Environ., 45, 263–288.
Fitter, A. H., R. S. R. Fitter, I. T. B. Harris, and M. H. Williamson, 1995: Relationships between first flowering date and temperature in the flora of a locality in central England. Funct. Ecol., 9, 55–60.
Folland, C. K., and Coauthors, 2001. Observed climate variability and change. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, J. T. Houghton et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 99–182.
Frich, P., L. V. Alexander, P. Della-Marta, B. Gleason, M. Haylock, A. M. G. Klein Tank, and T. Peterson, 2002: Observed coherent change in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Res., 19, 193–212.
Fyfe, J. C., and G. M. Flato, 1999: Enhanced climate change and its detection over the Rocky Mountains. J. Climate, 12, 230–243.
Giorgi, F., J. W. Hurrell, M. R. Marinucci, and M. Beniston, 1997: Elevation dependency of the surface climate change signal: A model study. J. Climate, 10, 288–296.
Gordo, O., and J. J. Sanz, 2005: Phenology and climate change: a long-term study in a Mediterranean locality. Oecologia, 146, 484–495.
Huang, Z., X. Zhang, G. Zheng, and Y. Gutterman, 2003: Influence of light, temperature, salinity and storage on seed germination of Haloxylon ammodendron. J. Arid Environ., 55, 453–464.
Jones, P. D., E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, M. Hulme, D. E. Parker, and T. A. Basnett, 1999: The use of indices to identify changes in climatic extremes. Climatic Change, 42, 131–149.
Kendall, M. G., 1955: Rank Correlation Methods. Griffin, 196 pp.
Klein-Tank, A. M. G., and G. P. Konnen, 2003: Trends indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–99. J. Climate, 16, 3665–3680.
Kosa, P., 2011. The effect of temperature on actual evapotranspiration based on Landsat 5 TM satellite imagery. Evapotranspiration, L. Labedzki, Ed., InTech, 209–228.
Lu, P. L., Q. Yu, J. D. Liu, and Q. T. He, 2006: Effects of changes in spring temperature on flowering dates of woody plants across China. Bot. Stud., 47, 153–161.
Mahan, J. R., J. J. Burke, and K. A. Orzech, 1987: The ‘thermal kinetic window' as an indicator of optimum plant temperature. Plant Physiol., 82, 518–522.
Matsumoto, K., T. Ohta, M. Irasawa, and T. Nakamura, 2003: Climate change and extension of the Ginkgo biloba L. growing season in Japan. Global Change Biol., 9, 1634–1642.
Nasrallah, H. A., E. Nieplova, and E. Ramadan, 2004: Warm season extreme temperature events in Kuwait. J. Arid Environ., 56, 357–371.
New, M., and Coauthors, 2006: Evidence of trends in daily climate extremes over southern and west Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14102, doi:10.1029/2005JD006289.
Pepin, N. C., and D. J. Seidel, 2005: A global comparison of surface and free-air temperatures at high elevations. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D03104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005047.
Péréz-Sánchez, R. M., E. Jurado, L. Chapa-Vargas, and J. Flores, 2011: Seed germination of Southern Chihuahuan Desert plants in response to elevated temperatures. J. Arid Environ., 75, 978–980.
Plummer, N., and Coauthors, 1999: Changes in climate extremes over the Australian region and New Zealand during the twentieth century. Climatic Change, 42, 183–202.
Rasul, G., A. Mahmood, A. Sadiq, and S. I. Khan, 2012: Vulnerability of the Indus delta to climate change in Pakistan. Pak. J. Meteor., 8, 89–107.
Safeeq, M., A. Mair, and A. Fares, 2013: Temporal and spatial trends in air temperature on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Int. J. Climatol., doi:10.1002/joc.3629, in press.
Salmi, T., A Määttä, P. Anttila, T. Ruoho-Airola, and T. Amnell, 2002: Detecting trends of annual values of atmospheric pollutants by the Mann–Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates—The Excel template application MAKESENS. Finnish Meteorological Institute Rep. 31, 35 pp. [Available online at http://cdn.fmi.fi/legacy-fmi-fi-content/documents/MAKESENS_MANUAL.pdf.]
Senioniti, E., Y. Manetos, and N. A. Gavales, 1986: Co-operative effects of light and temperature on the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Amaranthus paniculatus. Plant Physiol., 82, 518–522.
Sen Roy, S., R. Mahmood, D. Niyogi, S. Foster, K. G. Hubbard, E. Douglas, and R. Pielke Sr., 2007: Impacts of the agricultural Green Revolution–induced land use changes on air temperatures in India. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D21108, doi:10.1029/2007JD008834.
Sparks, T. H., E. P. Jeffree, and C. E. Jeffree, 2000: An examination of the relationship between flowering times and temperatures at the national scale using long-term phenological records from the UK. Int. J. Biometeor., 44, 82–87.
Trenberth, K. E., and Coauthors, 2007: Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 235–336.
Vincent, L. A., and Coauthors, 2005: Observed trends in indices of daily temperature extremes in South America 1960–2000. J. Climate, 18, 5011–5023.
Vuille, M., R. S. Bradley, M. Werner, and F. Keimig, 2003: 20th century climate change in the tropical Andes: Observations and model results. Climatic Change, 59, 75–99.
Yang, X., Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, M. Ding, and D. Chu, 2006: Climate change in Mt. Qomolangma region since 1971. J. Geogr. Sci., 16, 326–336.
You, Q., S. Kang, N. Pepin, and Y. Yan, 2008: Relationship between trends in temperature extremes and elevation in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau, 1961–2005. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04704, doi:10.1029/2007GL032669.
Zhai, P., A. Sun, F. Ren, X. Liu, B. Gao, and Q. Zhang, 1999: Changes of climate extremes in China. Climatic Change, 42, 203–218.