Partial support for this research was obtained from the NASA Global Modeling and Analysis Program under Contract NAS5-98179. We thank Peter Nelson of AER for data processing and producing the figures, and the editor for his thoughtful recommendations to improve the manuscript.
Basist, A. N., and M. Chelliah, 1997: Comparison of tropospheric temperatures derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, NCEP operational analysis, and the Microwave Sounding Unit. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 1431–1447.
Bromwich, D. H., F. M. Robasky, R. L. Cullather, and M. L. Van Woert, 1995: The atmospheric hydrologic cycle over the Southern Ocean and Antarctica from operational numerical analyses. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 3518–3538.
Chahine, M. T., R. Haskins, and E. Fetzer, 1997: Observation of the recycling rate of moisture in the atmosphere: 1988–1994. GEWEX News,7, 1–4.
Cullather, R. I., D. H. Bromwich, and M. C. Serreze, 2000: The atmospheric hydrologic cycle over the Arctic basin from reanalyses. Part I. Comparison with observations and previous studies. J. Climate,13, 923–937.
Gaffen, D. J., and R. J. Ross, 1999: Climatology and trends of U.S. surface humidity and temperature. J. Climate,12, 811–828.
——, R. D. Rosen, D. A. Salstein, and J. S. Boyle, 1997: Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor simulations from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. J. Climate,10, 1648–1661.
Gleckler, P. J., and Coauthors, 1995: Cloud-radiative effects on implied oceanic energy transports as simulated by atmospheric general circulation models. Geophys. Res. Lett.,22, 791–794.
Gutowski, W. J., Y. Chen, and Z. Otles, 1997: Atmospheric water vapor transport in NCEP–NCAR reanalyses: Comparison with river discharge in the central United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 1957–1969.
Hurrell, J. W., and K. E. Trenberth, 1999: Global sea surface temperature analyses: Multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling, and reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,80, 2661–2678.
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 437–471.
Mo, K. C., and R. W. Higgins, 1996: Large-scale atmospheric moisture transport as evaluated in the NCEP/NCAR and the NASA/DAO reanalyses. J. Climate,9, 1531–1545.
National Research Council, 1999: The GEWEX Global Water Vapor Project (GVaP)—U.S. Opportunities. National Academy Press, 17 pp.
Noel, J., and D. Changnon, 1998: A pilot study examining U.S. winter cyclone frequency patterns associated with three ENSO parameters. J. Climate,11, 2152–2159.
Peixoto, J. P., and A. H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, 520 pp.
——, R. D. Rosen, and D. A. Salstein, 1978: Seasonal variability in the pole-to-pole modes of water vapor transport during the IGY. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol.,A27, 233–255.
Philander, S. G. H., D. Gu, D. Halpern, G. Lambert, N.-C. Lau, T. Li, and R. C. Pacanowski, 1996: Why the ITCZ is mostly north of the equator. J. Climate,9, 2958–2972.
Randel, D. L., T. H. Vonder Haar, M. A. Ringerud, G. L. Stephens, T. J. Greenwald, and C. L. Combs, 1996: A new global water vapor dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 1233–1246.
Rosen, R. D., 1999: The global energy cycle. Global Energy and Water Cycles, K. A. Browning and R. J. Gurney, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 1–9.
Ross, R. J., and W. P. Elliott, 1996: Tropospheric water vapor climatology and trends over North America: 1973–93. J. Climate,9, 3561–3574.
Slonaker, R. L., and M. L. Van Woert, 1999: Atmospheric moisture transport across the Southern Ocean via satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res.,104, 9229–9249.
Sun, D.-Z., and A. H. Oort, 1995: Humidity–temperature relationships in the tropical troposphere. J. Climate,8, 1974–1987.
——, and K. E. Trenberth, 1998: Coordinated heat removal from the equatorial Pacific during the 1986–87 El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett.,25, 2659–2662.
——, 1998: Atmospheric moisture residence times and cycling: Implications for rainfall rates and climate change. Climatic Change,39, 667–694.
——, 1999: The extreme weather events of 1997 and 1998. Consequences,5, 3–15.
——, and C. J. Guillemot, 1998: Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrological cycle in the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Climate Dyn.,14, 213–231.
Waliser, D. E., Z. Shi, J. R. Lanzante, and A. H. Oort, 1999: The Hadley circulation: Assessing NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and sparse in-situ estimates. Climate Dyn.,15, 719–735.
Wang, X., P. H. Stone, and J. Marotzke, 1999: Global thermohaline circulation. Part I: Sensitivity to atmospheric moisture transport. J. Climate,12, 71–82.
Zhai, P., and R. E. Eskridge, 1997: Atmospheric water vapor over China. J. Climate,10, 2643–2652.