Partial support for this work was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. The first author was also supported by a graduate teaching assistantship of the University of Alberta. The Niño-3 index was obtained from the Climate Data Library of the International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate and Society at Columbia University (available online at http://ingrid.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.Indices/.nino/.EXTENDED/). The PDO and PNA indices were obtained from the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) at the University of Washington (available online at http://www.jisao.washington.edu/data_sets/). The wavelet and wavelet coherence software was provided by C. Torrence and G. Compo (available online at http://paos.colorado.edu/research/wavelets/), and A. Grinsted (available online at http://www.pol.ac.uk/home/research/waveletcoherence/).
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