Initial analyses were conducted at Princeton University while the lead author was supported under NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship NNX08AU28H: Understanding Hydrologic Sensitivity and Land–Atmosphere Coupling through Space-Based Remote Sensing. The manuscript was completed at the University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science supported by the lead author’s Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Postdoctoral Fellowship for Foreign Researchers P10379: Climate Change and the Potential Acceleration of the Hydrological Cycle. Publication fees were partially supported by the Catastrophe Perils group at Swiss Re. The following reanalyses were obtained from the Research Data Archive (RDA; http://dss.ucar.edu), which is maintained by the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF): NOAA–CIRES 20th Century V2.0 (ds131.1), NCEP-R1 (ds090.0), NCEP-R2 (ds091.0), CFSR (ds093.1), JRA-25 (ds625.0), and NARR (ds608.0). GLDAS and MERRA data were obtained from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center through the NASA GES DISC online archive. ECMWF ERA-Interim data “for research and educational applications” was obtained through the ECMWF data portal (http://data-portal.ecmwf.int/data/d/interim_daily). Justin Sheffield provided the PGF–VIC model output.
Adler, R., Wilheit T. , Kummerow C. , and Ferraro R. , 2007: AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Global Swath Rain Rate/Type GSFC Profiling Algorithm V10-Stage 2. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, digital media. [Available online at http://nsidc.org/data/ae_rain.html.]
Aumann, H. H., and Coauthors, 2003: AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 41, 253–264.
Baldocchi, D., and Coauthors, 2001: FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 2415–2434.
Beljaars, A. C. M., Viterbo P. , Miller M. J. , and Betts A. K. , 1996: The anomalous rainfall over the United States during July 1993: Sensitivity to land surface parameterization and soil moisture. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 362–383.
Betts, A. K., 2009: Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 1 (4), 1–18, doi:10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.4.
Bonan, G. B., Oleson K. W. , Vertenstein M. , Levis S. , Zeng X. , Dai Y. , Dickinson R. E. , and Yang Z.-L. , 2002: The land surface climatology of the community land model coupled to the NCAR community climate model. J. Climate, 15, 3123–3149.
Budyko, M. I., 1958: The heat balance of the earth’s surface. U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, 259 pp.
Budyko, M. I., 1974: Climate and Life. Academic Press, 508 pp.
Chahine, M. T., and Coauthors, 2006: Improving weather forecasting and providing new data on greenhouse gases. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 911–926.
Chen, F., and Coauthors, 1996: Modeling of land surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (D3), 7251–7268.
Chen, M. Y., Shi W. , Xie P. P. , Silva V. B. S. , Kousky V. E. , Higgins R. W. , and Janowiak J. E. , 2008: Assessing objective techniques for gauge-based analyses of global daily precipitation. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D04110, doi:10.1029/2007JD009132.
Compo, G. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 1–28, doi:10.1002/qj.776.
Cook, B. I., Bonan G. B. , and Levis S. , 2006: Soil moisture feedbacks to precipitation in southern Africa. J. Climate, 19, 4198–4206.
Cook, D. R., 2005: Energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) handbook. ARM Tech. Rep. TR-037, 23 pp.