Comments from anonymous reviewers helped to improve the manuscript. J. Liptak was partially supported by National Science Foundation Grant ARC-1022485.
Barnett, T. P., 1983: Interaction of the monsoon and Pacific trade wind system at interannual time scales. Part I: The equatorial case. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 756–773.
Barnston, A., , and Livezey R. E. , 1987: Classification, seasonality, and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1083–1126.
Becker, E. J., , and Berbery E. H. , 2009: Understanding the characteristics of daily precipitation over the United States using the North American Regional Reanalysis. J. Climate, 22, 6268–6286.
Bladé, I., 1999: The influence of midlatitude ocean–atmosphere coupling on the low-frequency variability of a GCM. Part II: Interannual variability induced by tropical SST forcing. J. Climate, 12, 21–45.
Coleman, J., , and Rogers J. , 2003: Ohio River Valley winter moisture conditions associated with the Pacific–North American teleconnection pattern. J. Climate, 16, 969–981.
Dirmeyer, P. A., , and Kinter J. L. , 2010: Floods over the U.S. Midwest: A regional water cycle perspective. J. Hydrometeor., 11, 1172–1181.
Eichenlaub, V. L., 1970: Lake effect snowfall to the lee of the Great Lakes: Its role in Michigan. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 51, 403–412.
Eichler, T., , and Higgins W. , 2006: Climatology and ENSO-related variability of North American extratropical cyclone activity. J. Climate, 19, 2076–2093.
Fritsch, J. M., , Kane R. J. , , and Chelius C. R. , 1986: The contribution of mesoscale convective weather systems to warm season precipitation in the United States. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 1333–1345.
Gershunov, A., , and Barnett T. P. , 1998: ENSO influence on intraseasonal extreme rainfall and temperature frequencies in the contiguous United States: Observations and model results. J. Climate, 11, 1575–1586.
Gilman, D. L., , Fuglister F. J. , , and Mitchell J. M. Jr., 1963: On the power spectrum of “red noise.” J. Atmos. Sci., 20, 182–184.
Groisman, P. Ya., , Knight R. W. , , Karl T. R. , , Easterling D. R. , , Sun B. , , and Lawrimore J. H. , 2004: Contemporary changes in the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States: Trends derived from in situ observations. J. Hydrometeor., 5, 64–85.
Groisman, P. Ya., , Knight R. W. , , Easterling D. R. , , Karl T. R. , , Hegerl G. C. , , and Razuvaev V. N. , 2005: Trends in intense precipitation in the climate record. J. Climate, 18, 1326–1350.
Hakim, S., , and Uccellini L. W. , 1992: Diagnosing coupled jet-streak circulations for a Northern Plains snow band from the operational nested-grid model. Wea. Forecasting, 7, 26–48.
Hannachi, A., , Jolliffe I. T. , , and Stephenson D. B. , 2007: Empirical orthogonal functions and related techniques in atmospheric science: A review. Int. J. Climatol., 27, 1119–1152, doi:10.1002/joc.1499.
Holton, J. R., 2004: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. 4th ed. Elsevier Academic Press, 535 pp.
Horel, J. D., 1981: A rotated principal component analysis of the interannual variability of the Northern Hemisphere 500 mb height field. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 2080–2092.
Isard, S. A., , Angel J. R. , , and VanDyke G. T. , 2000: Zones of origin for Great Lakes cyclones in North America, 1899–1996. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 474–485.
Kaihatu, J. M., , Handler R. A. , , Marmorino G. O. , , and Shay L. K. , 1998: Empirical orthogonal function analysis of ocean surface currents using complex and real-vector methods. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 927–941.
Karl, T. R., , and Knight R. W. , 1998: Secular trends of precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity in the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 231–241.
Key, J. R., , and Chan A. C. K. , 1999: Multidecadal global and regional trends in 1000 mb and 500 mb cyclone frequencies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2053–2056.
Klink, K., , and Willmott C. J. , 1989: Principal components of the surface wind field in the United States: A comparison of analyses based upon wind velocity, direction, and speed. Int. J. Climatol., 9, 293–308.
Konrad, C. E., 2001: The most extreme precipitation events over the eastern United States from 1950 to 1996: Considerations of scale. J. Hydrometeor., 2, 309–325.
Leathers, D. J., , Yarnal B. , , and Palecki M. A. , 1991: The Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern and United States climate. Part I: Regional temperature and precipitation associations. J. Climate, 4, 517–528.
Merrifield, M. A., , and Winant C. D. , 1989: Shelf circulation in the Gulf of California: A description of the variability. J. Geophys. Res., 94 (C12), 18 133–18 160.
Mo, K. C., , and Schemm J. E. , 2008: Droughts and persistent wet spells over the United States and Mexico. J. Climate, 21, 980–994.
Namias, J., , Yuan X. , , and Cayan D. R. , 1988: Persistence of North Pacific sea surface temperature and atmospheric flow patterns. J. Climate, 1, 682–703.
Niziol, T. A., , Snyder W. R. , , and Waldstreicher J. S. , 1995: Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United States. Part IV: Lake effect snow. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 61–77.
North, G. R., , Bell T. L. , , Cahlan R. F. , , and Moeng F. J. , 1982: Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 699–706.
Rodionov, S. N., 1994: Association between winter precipitation and water-level fluctuations in the Great Lakes and atmospheric circulation patterns. J. Climate, 7, 1693–1706.
Rothrock, H. J., 1969: An aid in forecasting significant lake snows. National Weather Service Central Region Tech Memo WBTM CR-30, 12 pp.
Serreze, M. C., , Clark M. P. , , and McGinnis D. L. , 1998: Characteristics of snowfall over the eastern half of the United States and relationships with principal modes of low-frequency atmospheric variability. J. Climate, 11, 234–250.
Small, D., , Islam S. , , and Barlow M. , 2010: The impact of a hemispheric circulation regime on fall precipitation over North America. J. Hydrometeor, 11, 1182–1189.
Strong, C., , and Davis R. E. , 2005: The surface of maximum wind as an alternative to the isobaric surface for wind climatology. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04813, doi:10.1029/2004GL022039.
Strong, C., , and Davis R. E. , 2007: Winter jet stream trends over the Northern Hemisphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 2109–2115.
Strong, C., , and Davis R. E. , 2008: Variability in the position and strength of winter jet stream cores related to Northern Hemisphere teleconnections. J. Climate, 21, 584–592.
Trenberth, K., 1990: Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71, 988–993.
von Storch, H., , Bruns T. , , Fischer-Bruns I. , , and Hasselmann K. , 1988: Principal oscillation pattern analysis of the 30- to 60-day oscillation in the general circulation model equatorial troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 93 (D9), 11 022–11 036.
Wallace, J. M., , and Gutzler D. S. , 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784–812.
Welch, P. D., 1967: The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms. IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust., 15, 70–73.
Wernli, H., , and Schwierz C. , 2006: Surface cyclones in the ERA-40 dataset (1958–2001). Part I: Novel identification method and global climatology. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2486–2507.
Wilks, D. S., 1995: Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. Academic Press, 467 pp.
Wolter, K., , and Timlin M. S. , 1993: Monitoring ENSO in COADS with a seasonally adjusted principal component index. Proc. 17th Climate Diagnostics Workshop, Norman, OK, NOAA, 52–57.
Zhang, X., , Wang J. , , Zwiers F. W. , , and Groisman P. Ya. , 2010: The influence of large-scale climate variability on winter maximum daily precipitation over North America. J. Climate, 23, 2902–2915.
Zishka, K. M., , and Smith P. J. , 1980: The climatology of cyclones and anticyclones over North America and surrounding ocean environs for January and July, 1950–77. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 387–401.