In Situ Measurements and Observations of Cumulonimbus Mamma

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  • 1 University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota
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Abstract

The results from an instrumented aircraft penetration of two mamma elements associated with a severe hailstorm are presented. Maximum downdrafts in the clouds were near 2 m s−1. The main downdraft region was warmer than the air outside of the cloud. Aggregate ice particles of average diameter just over 1 mm predominated. The edge of the cloud was not descending. The cloud was smooth and contained only light turbulence. These results are discussed in the context of theories of mamma formation.

Abstract

The results from an instrumented aircraft penetration of two mamma elements associated with a severe hailstorm are presented. Maximum downdrafts in the clouds were near 2 m s−1. The main downdraft region was warmer than the air outside of the cloud. Aggregate ice particles of average diameter just over 1 mm predominated. The edge of the cloud was not descending. The cloud was smooth and contained only light turbulence. These results are discussed in the context of theories of mamma formation.

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