This paper grew out of a graduate synoptic-dynamic laboratory class devoted to a multiscale analysis of the superstorm of March 1993. We are deeply indebted to the following individuals for their contributions to this work: Barry Schwartz of the Forecast Systems Laboratory for providing observations from Central America and Mexico; Drs. Gary Lackmann of McGill University and Haig Iskenderian of Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., for assistance in obtaining ECMWF analyses and other data; Matthew Pyle of SUNYA for assistance in employing the methodology of Loughe et al. (1995) for this case; Prof. John Horel of the University of Utah for making the NMC model grids for SS93 available on the internet in real time; Anton Seimon of SUNYA for allowing access to his surface mesoanalyses of SS93; Prof. Jim Steenburgh of the University of Utah and Prof. Michael Reeder of Monash University for their advice and comments; Guillermo Quiros Alvarez from the Oceanography and Coastal Management Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica for providing references on the impact of tehuantepecers on the ocean and imagery of other oceanic cooling events; Prof. James McGuirk of Texas A&M University for generously providing a copy of Reding (1992); Dr. David Fitzjarrald of SUNYA for providing relevant references on northers and data made available by the Universidad Veracruzana and Mexican Weather Service; Drs. Armando Trasviña of the Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenda, Sam Houston and David Enfield of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories and, Prof. Peter Waylen of the University of Florida for their advice and interest in this project; Jennifer Miletta of the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) for advice on the interpretation of satellite imagery; Dr. Robert Atlas and Joseph V. Ardizzone of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for providing SSM/I and ERS-1 wind data; Marilyn Peacock for drafting some of the figures; and Brian Colle of the University of Washington, Dr. Fred Sanders, and the anonymous reviewers whose comments helped improve this manuscript.
We are grateful to ECMWF, SSEC, PMEL, and the Data Support Section of the Scientific Computing Division of NCAR for providing data used in this study. All gridded and observational data were stored, analyzed, and displayed using the Generalized Meteorological Analysis Package (gempak; Koch et al. 1983), a product of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP, formerly NMC). Digital satellite imagery was displayed and manipulated with the Man–Computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS; Suomi et al. 1983).
This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant ATM-9413012 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through Grant NA56GP0197 awarded to the State University of New York at Albany.
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