We wish tothank Y.-L. Zhang and S.-J. Chen of Peking University, for providing the observed cold surge data. Tian-Fu Li of Hainan Meteorological Bureau provided valuable information and offered his forecasting experience. Michael Fiorino facilitated access to the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Comments, advice, and suggestions provided by Y. H. Ding, K. M. Lau, C. Y. Li, T. Matsuno, E. M. Rasmusson, B. Wang, X. L. Wang, P. J. Webster, and T. Yasunari were important to the evolution and continuous refinement of our ideas on this subject. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Science Division at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-ENG-48.
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