One of us (JM) has had enlightening conversations about wave propagation and other aspects of this work with David Raymond of New Mexico Tech and Kerry Emanuel of MIT. We have also had beneficial discussions with Lloyd Shapiro of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA (HRD) and Arthur Loesch and Daniel Keyser of the SUNY/Albany Department of Atmospheric Science. Peter Black of HRD first proposed the eastern Pacific MJO connection during the TEXMEX data collection effort in 1991. We thank Gary Lackmann (now at McGill University) and Daniel Keyser for the computer code for the Lanczos filter. We are indebted to Richard Pasch of the National Hurricane Center for providing information on eastern Pacific tropical depressions 5 and 10 of 1991. Finally, we thank Anton Seimon, not only for locating the references about the “Relampago del Catatumbo,” but also for providing translations from the Spanish.
The gridded analyses for this study were generated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Most were obtained directly from ECMWF; the remainder were accessed via the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), which is funded by the National Science Foundation. The OLR data were also acquired from archives at NCAR. This study was supported by National Science Foundation Grant 9529771 and by Office for Naval Research Grant N00014-94-I-0289.
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