This research began as part of a graduate synoptic laboratory course during the Fall 1993 semester. We wish to thank Professor John Horel at the University of Utah for making the SS93 MRF forecast grids available to the community in real time, Adrian Simmons of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for providing us with comprehensive SS93 plots and documentation of ECMWF model performance, and Peter Caplan of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction for helping us understand the Kuo cumulus parameterization scheme as used in the MRF at the time of SS93. We also appreciate the constructive comments of an anonymous reviewer and Mike Wallace that resulted in an improved manuscript. We thank Jeff Freedman and Paul Moore for their assistance in accessing the lightning data. We also thank Mike Cempa for his assistance in compositing the CD data. Marilyn Peacock provided drafting help and Celeste Iovinella prepared the final manuscript. This research was supported by NSF Grant ATM-9413012. Figure 8 is courtesy of Robert Bauer of the National Snow and Ice Data Center/Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.
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