The authors express appreciation for many helpful discussions with Drs. J. S. Kain, J. M. Fritsch, and Y.-H. Kuo. Thanks also go to Tom Black of NCEP for providing the Fortran source codes of the Betts–Miller scheme, and Dr. Yu-Bao Liu for providing graphic software. We would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive criticism, which helped to improve the presentation of this study. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through Grant DE-FG02-90ER61071 and by the Federal Aviation Administration and National Science Foundation (NSF) through Grant ATM-9203317. Computer resources were made available through the Earth System Science Center of The Pennsylvania State University and through NCAR, which is supported by NSF.
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