COAPS receives its base funding from the Physical Oceanography Section of the Office of Naval Research. Additional funding for this research was provided by NOAA’s Office of Global Programs. The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Mark A. Bourassa for his comments and assistance with the statistical analysis. Furthermore, we thank Dr. David M. Legler and Mr. Alan Davis for their professional support. We also acknowledge Mr. James Stricherz and Ms. Jiraporn Whalley for their assistance in producing the figures and Ms. Kathy Fearon for proofreading the manuscript.
Bhattacharyya, G. A., and R. A. Johnson, 1977: Statistical Concepts and Methods. John Wiley & Sons, 639 pp.
Chen, B., S. R. Smith, and D. H. Bromwich, 1996: Evolution of the tropospheric split jet over the South Pacific Ocean during the 1986–89 ENSO cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 1711–1731.
Emery, W. J., and K. Hamilton, 1985: Atmospheric forcing of interannual variability in the northeast Pacific Ocean: Connections with El Niño. J. Geophys. Res.,90 (C1), 857–868.
Glantz, M. H., 1996: Currents of Change: El Niño’s Impact on Climate and Society. Cambridge University Press, 194 pp.
Green, P. M., 1996: Regional analysis of Canadian, Alaskan, and Mexican precipitation and temperature anomalies for ENSO impact. COAPS Tech. Rep. 96-6, 104 pp. [Available from Center for Ocean–Atmospheric Prediction Studies, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2840.].
Holton, J. R., 1992: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. 3d ed. Academic Press, 511 pp.
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 437–471.
Kiladis, G. N., and H. F. Diaz, 1989: Global climatic anomalies associated with extremes in the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate,2, 1069–1090.
Le Comte, D., 1997: A wet and stormy year. Weatherwise,50, 14–24.
May, W., and L. Bengtsson, 1996: On the impact of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon on the atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. Rep. 224, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 61 pp. [Available from Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany.].
Mo, K., and E. Rasmusson, 1993: The 200-mb climatological vorticity budget during 1986–1989 as revealed by NMC analyses. J. Climate,6, 577–594.
Namias, J., and P. F. Clapp, 1949: Confluence theory of the high tropospheric jet stream. J. Meteor.,6, 330–336.
Philander, S. G., 1990: El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation. Academic Press, 293 pp.
Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1996: Quantifying Southern Oscillation–precipitation relationships. J. Climate,9, 1043–1059.
Shabbar, A., B. Bonsal, and M. Khandekar, 1997: Canadian precipitation patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate,10, 3016–3027.
Shriver, J. F., and J. J. O’Brien, 1995: Low-frequency variability of the equatorial Pacific Ocean using a new pseudostress dataset: 1930–1989. J. Climate,8, 2762–2786.
Sittel, M. C., 1994a: Marginal probabilities of the extremes of ENSO events for temperature and precipitation in the southeastern United States. COAPS Tech. Rep. 94-1, 156 pp. [Available from Center for Ocean–Atmospheric Prediction Studies, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2840.].
——, 1994b: Differences in the means of ENSO extremes for maximum temperature and precipitation in the United States. COAPS Tech. Rep. 94-2, 50 pp. [Available from Center for Ocean–Atmospheric Prediction Studies, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2840.].
Uccellini, L. W., 1990: Processes contributing to the rapid development of extratropical cyclones. Extratropical Cyclones: The Erik Palmén Memorial Volume. C. W. Newton and E. O. Holopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81–105.
van Loon, H., and R. A. Madden, 1981: The Southern Oscillation. Part I: Global associations with pressure and temperature in the northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 1150–1162.
——, and J. C. Rogers, 1981: The Southern Oscillation. Part II: Associations with changes in the middle troposphere in the northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 1163–1168.
Vose, R. S., R. L. Schmoyer, P. M. Steurer, T. C. Peterson, R. Heim, T. R. Karl, and J. K. Eischeid, 1992: The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea-level pressure, and station pressure data. Report 3912, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, Oak Ridge, TN, 100 pp. [Available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335.].
Yarnal, B., and H. Diaz, 1986: Relationships between extremes of the Southern Oscillation and the winter climate of the Anglo-American Pacific Coast. J. Climatol.,6, 197–219.