We are very grateful to three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions to improve this paper. We are also grateful to Sue Chen, Jimy Dudhia, and Bill Kuo (National Center for Atmospheric Research) for their support and help in making the MM5 model available for researchers at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Our sincere appreciation also goes to Yi-Leng Chen (University of Hawaii) and Craig Bishop (Pennsylvania State University) for their important contributions in this study. Special thanks also go to Stephen Lang and Dean Duffy for their reading and revising of the manuscript.
Chaing Chen, Wei-Kuo Tao, and George S. Lai are supported by NASA Headquarters Physical Climate Program, the Interdisciplinary Investigation of the Earth Observing System (EOS). We would like to show our appreciation to Drs. R. Kakar, R. Adler, and K. M. Lau for their support of this research. Additional acknowledgement is made to NASA/GSFC for computer resources used in this research.
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