Support for this project came from the U.S. Office of Naval Research Coastal Meteorology Accelerated Research Initiative Grant 96pr01929-00. RAMS was developed under the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Army Research Office (ARO). We would like to acknowledge the helpful suggestions made by three anonymous reviewers of this paper.
Abbs, D. J., and R. A. Pielke, 1987: Numerical simulations of orographic effects on NE Colorado snowstorms. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,37, 1–10.
Bond, N. A., C. F. Mass, and J. E. Overland, 1996: Coastally trapped wind reversals along the United States west coast during the warm season. Part I: Climatology and temporal evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 430–445.
Clark, T. L., and R. D. Farley, 1984: Severe downslope windstorm calculations in two and three spatial dimensions using anelastic interactive grid nesting: A possible mechanism for gustiness. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 329–350.
Dorman, C. E., 1985: Evidence of Kelvin waves in California’s marine layer and related eddy generation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,113, 827–839.
——, 1987: Possible role of gravity currents in northern California’s marine layer and related eddy generation. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 1497–1506.
——, 1988: Comments on “Coastal southerlies and alongshore surges of the west coast of North America: Evidence of mesoscale topographically trapped response to synoptic forcing.” Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2401–2406.
Gill, A. E., 1977: Coastally trapped waves in the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,103, 431–440.
Holland, G. J., and L. M. Leslie, 1986: Ducted coastal ridging over S.E. Australia. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 731–748.
Jackson, P. L., and D. G. Steyn, 1994: Gap winds in a fjord. Part I:Observations and numerical simulation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 1245–1265.
Klemp, J. B., R. Rotunno, and W. C. Skamarock, 1995: Shallow-water model simulations of coastally trapped disturbances. Preprints, Seventh Conf. on Mountain Meteorology, Breckenridge, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 197–202.
Lee, T. J., R. A. Pielke, R. C. Kessler, and J. F. Weaver, 1989: Influence of cold pools downstream of mountain barriers on downslope winds and flushing. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 2041–2058.
Mass, C. F., and M. D. Albright, 1987: Coastal southerlies and alongshore surges of the west coast of North America: Evidence of mesoscale topographically trapped response to synoptic forcing. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 1707–1738.
——, and ——, 1988: Reply. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2407–2410.
——, ——, and D. J. Brees, 1986: The onshore surge of marine air into the Pacific Northwest: A coastal region of complex terrain. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 2602–2627.
Pielke, R. A., and Coauthors, 1992: A comprehensive meteorological modeling system—RAMS. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,49, 69–91.
Reason, C. J. C., 1994: Orographically trapped disturbances in the lower atmosphere: Scale analysis and simple models. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,53, 131–136.
——, and M. R. Jury, 1990: On the generation and propagation of the southern African coastal low. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,116, 1133–1151.
——, and D. G. Steyn, 1990: Coastally trapped disturbances in the lower atmosphere: Dynamic commonalities and geographic diversity. Prog. Phys. Geogr.,14(2), 178–198.
——, and ——, 1992: The dynamics of coastally trapped mesoscale ridges in the lower atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1677–1692.
——, and R. Dunkley, 1993: Coastally trapped stratus events in British Columbia. Atmos.–Ocean,31, 235–258.
Rogerson, A. M., and R. M. Samelson, 1995: Synoptic forcing of coastal-trapped disturbances in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2025–2040.
Xian, Z., and R. A. Pielke, 1991: The effects of width of land masses on the development of sea breezes. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 1280–1304.