The authors are grateful to a large number of persons who contributed in various ways to the progress of the developmental work reported in this paper. We especially appreciate the continuous encouragement and strong support of J. Smagorinsky, former GFDL director, and J. Mahlman, GFDL director, during the very long course of the present study. We also appreciate the strong support and encouragement of R. McPherson, E. Kalnay, S. Lord, R. Sheets, and R. Burpee in the operational implementation of the GFDL Prediction System. We thank T. Knutson and C.-C. Wu for valuable comments on the manuscript, the referees for comments and suggestions, and K. Raphael and J. Varanyak for assistance with figure preparation.
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