Thanks are extended to Dr. Kevin Knupp at the University of Alabama for contributing the digital radar and satellite imagery, and to Dr. Ken Waight of MESO, Inc., for assistance with running the MASS model. Helpful comments on the manuscript were provided by Ed Delgado at the NWS-Raleigh. Model runs were performed at the North Carolina Supercomputing Center and on the FOAMV cluster, funded by IBM, at North Carolina State University (NCSU). Additional assistance in producing some of the graphics was provided by Gail Andrews, Michael Black, and Brian Potter at NCSU. This research was funded in part by NSF Grant ATM-9319345, from NOAA through the Southeast Consortium on Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes under Grant NA27RP029201, and from Air Force Grant F49620-95-1-00226. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA.
Barnes, S. L., F. Caracena, and A. Marroquin, 1996: Extracting synoptic-scale diagnostic information from mesoscale models: The Eta model, gravity waves, and quasigeostrophic diagnostics. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 519–528.
Beebe, R. G., and F. C. Bates, 1955: A mechanism for assisting in the release of convective instability. Mon. Wea. Rev.,83, 1–10.
Benard, P., J.-L. Redelsperger, and J.-P. Lafore, 1992: Nonhydrostatic simulation of frontogenesis in a moist atmosphere. Part I: General description and narrow rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 2200–2217.
Bennetts, D. A., and B. J. Hoskins, 1979: Conditional symmetric instability—A possible explanation for frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,105, 945–962.
——, and J. C. Sharp, 1982: The relevance of conditional symmetric instability to the prediction of mesoscale frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 595–602.
——, and P. Ryder, 1984: A study of mesoscale convective bands behind cold fronts. Part I: Mesoscale organization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,110, 121–145.
Bluestein, H. B., 1993: Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press, 431 pp.
Blumen, W., 1980: A comparison between the Hoskins-Bretherton model of frontogenesis and the analysis of an intense surface frontal zone. J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 64–77.
Bosart, L. F., and A. Seimon, 1988: A case study of an unusually intense atmospheric gravity wave. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 1857–1886.
Ciesielski, P. E., D. E. Stevens, R. H. Johnson, and K. R. Dean, 1989:Observational evidence for asymmetric inertial instability. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 817–831.
Davies, J. M., and R. H. Johns, 1993: Some wind and instability parameters associated with strong and violent tornadoes. Part I:Wind shear and helicity. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 573–582.
Dorian, P. B., S. E. Koch, and W. C. Skillman, 1988: The relationship between satellite-inferred frontogenesis and squall line formation. Wea. Forecasting,3, 319–342.
Emanuel, K. A., 1979: Inertial instability and mesoscale convective systems. Part I: Linear theory of inertial instability in rotating viscous fluids. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 2425–2449.
——, 1983a: The Lagrangian parcel dynamics of moist symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 2368–2376.
——, 1983b: On assessing local conditional symmetric instability from atmospheric soundings. Mon. Wea. Rev.,111, 2016–2033.
——, 1985: Frontal circulations in the presence of small moist symmetric stability. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 1062–1071.
——, M. Fantini, and A. J. Thorpe, 1987: Baroclinic instability in an environment of small stability to slantwise moist convection. Part I: Two-dimensional models. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 1559–1573.
Ferretti, R., F. Einaudi, and L. W. Uccellini, 1988: Wave disturbances associated with the Red River Valley severe weather outbreak of 10–11 April 1979. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,39, 132–168.
Gossard, E. E., and W. H. Hooke, 1975: Waves in the Atmosphere. Elsevier, 456 pp.
Hamilton, D. W., Y.-L. Lin, R. P. Weglarz, and M. L. Kaplan, 1998:Jetlet formation from diabatic forcing with applications to the 1994 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 2061–2089.
Holton, J., 1992: Dynamic Meteorology. 3d ed. Academic Press, 511 pp.
Hoskins, B. J., and F. P. Bretherton, 1972: Atmospheric frontogenesis models: Mathematical formulation and solution. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 11–37.
——, and M. A. Pedder, 1980: The diagnosis of middle latitude synoptic development. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,106, 707–719.
——, I. D. Draghici, and H. C. Davies, 1978: A new look at the omega equation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,104, 31–38.
Jascourt, S. D., S. S. Lindstrom, C. J. Seman, and D. D. Houghton, 1988: An observation of banded convective development in the presence of weak symmetric stability. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 175–191.
Kaplan, M. L., J. W. Zack, V. C. Wong, and J. J. Tuccillo, 1982: Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 1564–1590.
——, S. E. Koch, Y.-L. Lin, and R. Weglarz, 1997: Numerical simulations of a gravity wave event over CCOPE. Part I: The role of geostrophic adjustment in mesoscale ageostrophic jetlet formation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 1185–1211.
——, Y.-L. Lin, D. W. Hamilton, and R. A. Rozumalski, 1998: The numerical simulation of an unbalanced jetlet and its role in the 1994 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak in Alabama and Georgia. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 2133–2165.
Keyser, D., and M. A. Shapiro, 1986: A review of the structure and dynamics of upper-level frontal zones. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 452–499.
Knight, D. J., and P. V. Hobbs, 1988: The mesoscale and microscale structure of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclones. Part XV: A numerical modeling study of frontogenesis and cold-frontal rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 915–930.
Koch, S. E., 1984: The role of an apparent mesoscale frontogenetical circulation in squall line initiation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 2090–2111.
——, and P. B. Dorian, 1988: A mesoscale gravity wave event observed over CCOPE. Part III: Wave environment and probable source mechanisms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2570–2592.
——, and R. E. Golus, 1988: A mesoscale gravity wave event observed during CCOPE. Part I: Multiscale statistical analyses of wave characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2527–2544.
——, and C. O’Handley, 1997: Operational forecasting and detection of mesoscale gravity waves. Wea. Forecasting,12, 253–281.
——, M. desJardins, and P. J. Kocin, 1983: An interactive Barnes objective map analysis scheme for use with satellite and conventional data. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,22, 1487–1503.
——, R. E. Golus, and P. B. Dorian, 1988: A mesoscale gravity wave event observed over CCOPE. Part II: Interactions between mesoscale convective systems and the antecedent waves. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2545–2569.
——, F. Einaudi, P. B. Dorian, S. Lang, and G. M. Heymsfield, 1993:A mesoscale gravity wave event observed during CCOPE. Part IV: Stability analysis and Doppler-derived wave vertical structure. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2483–2510.
——, J. McQueen, and V. M. Karyampudi, 1995: A numerical study of the effects of differential cloud cover on cold frontal structure and dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 937–964.
——, A. Aksakal, and J. T. McQueen, 1997: The influence of mesoscale humidity and evapotranspiration fields on a model forecast of a cold frontal squall line. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 384–409.
Kuo, Y.-H., and R. J. Reed, 1988: Numerical simulation of an explosively deepening cyclone in the eastern Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2081–2105.
Langmaid, A. H., and A. J. Riordan, 1998: Surface mesoscale processes during the 1994 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 2117–2132.
Lin, Y.-L., and R. B. Smith, 1986: Transient dynamics of airflow near a local heat source. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 40–49.
——, and R. C. Goff, 1988: A study of a mesoscale solitary wave in the atmosphere originating near a region of deep convection. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 194–205.
——, and S. Li, 1988: Three-dimensional response of a shear flow to elevated heating. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 2987–3002.
Lindzen, R. S., and K. K. Tung, 1976: Banded convective activity and ducted gravity waves. Mon. Wea. Rev.,104, 1602–1617.
Maddox, R. A., 1980: An objective technique for separating macroscale and mesoscale features in meteorological data. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 1108–1121.
Manobianco, J., S. E. Koch, V. M. Karyampudi, and A. J. Negri, 1994: The impact of assimilating satellite-derived precipitation rates on numerical simulations of the ERICA IOP 4 cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 341–365.
McNulty, R. P., 1978: On upper tropospheric kinematics and severe weather occurrence. Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 662–672.
Miller, J. E., 1955: Intensification of precipitation by differential advection. J. Meteor.,12, 472–477.
Moore, J. T., and P. D. Blakeley, 1988: The role of frontogenetical forcing and conditional symmetric instability in the Midwest snowstorm of 30–31 January 1982. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 2155–2171.
——, and T. E. Lambert, 1993: The use of equivalent potential vorticity to diagnose regions of conditional symmetric instability. Wea. Forecasting,8, 301–308.
Palmén, E., and C. W. Newton, 1969: Atmospheric Circulation Systems: Their Structure and Physical Interpretation. International Geophysics Series, Vol. 13, Academic Press, 603 pp.
Persson, P. O. G., and T. T. Warner, 1993: Nonlinear hydrostatic conditional symmetric instability: Implications for numerical weather prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 1821–1833.
Powers, J. G., and R. J. Reed, 1993: Numerical simulation of the large-amplitude mesoscale gravity wave event of 15 December 1987 in the central United States. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2285–2308.
Raymond, D. J., 1984: A wave-CISK model of squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 1946–1958.
Rottman, J. W., F. Einaudi, S. E. Koch, and W. L. Clark, 1992: A case study of penetrative convection and gravity waves over the PROFS mesonetwork on 23 July 1983. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,47, 205–227.
Sanders, F., and L. F. Bosart, 1985: Mesoscale structure in the megalopolitan snowstorm of 11–12 February 1983. Part I: Frontogenetical forcing and symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 1050–1061.
Seltzer, M. A., R. E. Passarelli, and K. A. Emanuel, 1985: The possible role of symmetric instability in the formation of precipitation bands. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 2207–2219.
Seman, C. J., 1994: A numerical study of nonlinear nonhydrostatic conditional symmetric instability in a convectively unstable atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1352–1371.
Shields, M. T., R. M. Rauber, and M. K. Ramamurthy, 1991: Dynamical forcing and mesoscale organization of precipitation bands in a Midwest winter cyclonic storm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 936–964.
Snook, J. S., 1992: Current techniques for real-time evaluation of conditional symmetric instability. Wea. Forecasting,7, 430–439.
Stevens, D. E., and P. E. Ciesielski, 1986: Inertial instability of horizontally sheared flow away from the equator. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 2845–2856.
Stobie, J. G., F. Einaudi, and L. W. Uccellini, 1983: A case study of gravity waves–convective interaction: 9 May 1979. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 2804–2830.
Thorpe, A. J., and K. A. Emanuel, 1985: Frontogenesis in the presence of small stability to slantwise convection. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 1809–1824.
Uccellini, L. W., 1975: A case study of apparent gravity wave initiation of severe convective storms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,103, 497–513.
——, and D. R. Johnson, 1979: The coupling of upper and lower-tropospheric jet streaks and implications for the development of severe convective storms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,107, 662–673.
——, and S. E. Koch, 1987: The synoptic setting and possible energy sources for mesoscale wave disturbances. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 721–729.
——, and P. J. Kocin, 1987: The interaction of jet streak circulations during heavy snow events along the east coast of the United States. Wea. Forecasting,2, 289–308.
Weisman, M. L., and J. B. Klemp, 1982: The dependence of numerically simulated convective storms on vertical wind shear and buoyancy. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 504–520.
Wolfsberg, D. G., K. A. Emanuel, and R. E. Passarelli, 1986: Band formation in a New England winter storm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 1552–1569.
Xu, Q., 1986: Conditional symmetric instability and mesoscale rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 315–334.
——, 1989: Extended Sawyer–Eliassen equation for frontal circulations in the presence of small viscous moist symmetric stability. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 2671–2683.
——, 1992: Formation and evolution of frontal rainbands and geostrophic potential vorticity anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 629–648.