The authors have benefited considerably from the comments of Drs. S. E. Koch and A. J. Riordan. This work has been supported by Air Force Grant F49620-95-1-0226, NSF Grant ATM-9224595, as well as NOAA Grant NA27RP029201 as part of the Southeast Consortium on Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes. Part of the computations were performed on IBM workstations, which are part of the FOAMv computing facility at NCSU, and the supercomputer at the North Carolina Supercomputing Center.
Anthes, R. A., Y.-H. Kuo, S. G. Benjamin, and Y.-F. Li, 1982: The evolution of the mesoscale environment of severe local storms:Preliminary modeling results. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 1187–1213.
Bluestein, H. B., and K. W. Thomas, 1984: Diagnosis of a jet streak in the vicinity of a severe weather outbreak in the Texas panhandle. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 2499–2520.
Blumen, W., 1972: Geostrophic adjustment. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.,10, 485–528.
Bretherton, C., 1988: Group velocity and the linear response of stratified fluids to internal heat or mass sources. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 81–93.
Cotton, W. R., and R. A. Anthes, 1989: Storm and Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press, 883 pp.
——, M.-S. Lin, R. L. McAnelly, and C. J. Tremback, 1989: A composite model of mesoscale convective complexes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 765–783.
Fankhauser, J. C., 1971: Thunderstorm–environment interactions determined from aircraft and radar observations. Mon. Wea. Rev.,99, 171–192.
Frank, W. M., 1983: The cumulus parameterization problem. Mon. Wea. Rev.,111, 1859–1871.
Fujita, T., 1982: Principle of steoreographic height computations and their applications to stratospheric cirrus over severe thunderstorms. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 60, 355–368.
Hales, J. E., and M. D. Vescio, 1996: The March 1994 tornado outbreak in the southeast U. S: The forecast process from an SPC perspective. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Francisco, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 32–36.
Heymsfield, G. M., R. H. Blackmer Jr., and S. Schotz, 1983: Upper-level structure of Oklahoma tornadic storms on 2 May 1979: Part I. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 1740–1755.
Kaplan, M. L., J. W. Zack, V. C. Wong, and J. J. Tuccillo, 1982: Initial results from a Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 1564–1590.
——, Y.-L. Lin, D. W. Hamilton, and R. A. Rozumalski, 1996: The numerical simulation of an unbalanced jetlet and its role in the Palm Sunday 1994 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Georgia. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Francisco, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 240–244.
——, ——, ——, and ——, 1998: The numerical simulation of an unbalanced jetlet and its role in the Palm Sunday 1994 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Georgia. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 2133–2165.
Koch, S. E., Y.-L. Lin, M. L. Kaplan, M. Vescio, A. Langmaid, D. W. Hamilton, D. Kramer, and M. Black, 1996: Frontal mesolow dynamics in the Palm Sunday tornado outbreak. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Francisco, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 47–51.
Lin, Y.-L., 1986: Calculation of airflow over an isolated heat source with application to the dynamics of V-shaped clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 2736–2751.
——, and R. B. Smith, 1986: Transient dynamics of airflow near a local heat source. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 40–49.
——, and S. Li, 1988: Three-dimensional response of a shear flow to elevated heating. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 2987–3002.
——, and I.-C. Jao, 1995: A numerical study of flow circulations in the Central Valley of California and formation mechanisms of the Fresno eddy. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 3227–3239.
Maddox, R. A., 1979: The evolution of middle and upper tropospheric features during a period of intense convective storms. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kansas City, KS, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 41–48.
——, D. J. Perkey, and J. M. Fritsch, 1981: Evolution of upper tropospheric features during the development of a mesoscale convective complex. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 1664–1674.
Raymond, D. J., 1976: Wave-CISK and convective mesosystems. J. Atmos. Sci.,33, 2392–2398.
Smith, R. B., 1980: Linear theory of stratified hydrostatic flow past an isolated mountain. Tellus,32, 348–364.
Uccellini, L. W., and D. R. Johnson, 1979: The coupling of upper- and lower-tropospheric jet streaks and implications for the development of severe convective storms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,107, 682–703.
Wang, T.-A., Y.-L. Lin, H. F. M. Semazzi, and G. S. Janowitz, 1996:Response of a stably stratified atmosphere to large-scale diabatic forcing with applications to wind patterns in Brazil and the Sahel. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7049–7073.
Weglarz, R. P., 1994: Three-dimensional geostrophic adjustment of homogeneous and continuously stratified atmospheres with application to the dynamics of midlatitude jet streaks. Ph.D. thesis, North Carolina State University, 414 pp.
Wolf, B. J., and D. R. Johnson, 1995: The mesoscale forcing of a midlatitude upper-tropospheric jet streak by a simulated convective system. Part I: Mass circulation and ageostrophic processes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 1059–1087.
Zack, J. W., and M. L. Kaplan, 1987: Numerical simulations of the subsynoptic features associated with the AVE-SESAME I case. Part I: The preconvective environment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 2067–2094.