We are grateful to Drs. Richard Reed, Lance Bosart, Howard Bluestein, Jim Bresch, Scott Braun, Jimy Dudhia, Chaing Chen, Shang-Wu Li, Jordan Powers, and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments that helped improve this paper. Shou-Jun Chen would like to express his appreciation to Dr. Robert Gall, director of Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, for supporting his visit to NCAR. This work is partially supported by NASA/Goddard under Order S-41381-F, and partially supported by the Chinese Natural Science Foundation under Grant 49335060.
Anthes, R. A., Y.-H. Kuo, S. G. Benjamin, and Y.-F. Li, 1982: The evolution of the mesoscale environment of severe local storms:Preliminary modeling results. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 1187–1213.
Chen, C., W.-K. Tao, P.-L. Lin, G. S. Lai, S.-F. Tseng, and T.-C. Chen Wang, 1998: The intensification of the low-level jet during the development of mesoscale convective systems on a Mei-Yu front. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 349–371.
Chen, G. T.-J., 1983: Observational aspects of Mei-Yu phenomena in subtropical China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,61, 306–312.
——, and C.-C. Yu, 1988: Study of low-level jet and extremely heavy rainfall over northern Taiwan in the Mei-Yu season. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 884–891.
Chen, Q.-S., 1982: The instability of the gravity–inertia wave and its relation to low-level jet and heavy rainfall. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,60, 1041–1057.
Chen, Y.-L., X.-A. Chen, and Y.-X. Gang, 1994: A diagnostic study of the low-level jet during TAMEX IOP5. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 2257–2284.
——, ——, S. Chen, and Y.-H. Kuo, 1997: A numerical study of the low-level jet during TAMEX IOP5. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 2583–2604.
Chou, L. C., C.-P. Chang, and R. T. Williams, 1990: A numerical simulation of the Mei-Yu front and the associated low level jet. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 1408–1428.
Ding, Y.-H., 1992: Summer monsoon rainfalls in China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,70, 337–396.
Dong, L., 1991: The weather in June 1991 (in Chinese). Meteor. Mon.,17, 58–61.
Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State–NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and the cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 1493–1513.
Fang, Z.-Y., 1985: Preliminary study of medium-scale cloud cluster over Changjiang basin in summer. Adv. Atmos. Sci.,2, 334–340.
Feng, Z.-X., N. Zheng, and J.-X. Yang, 1995: Mesoscale analysis of a heavy precipitation event over Jiang-Huai Basin (in Chinese). Studies on Heavy Rainfall over Jiang-Huai Basin in 1991, Y.-H. Ding, Ed., Meteor. Press, 120–124.
Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, 138 pp.
Hibbard, W., and D. Santek, 1990: The VIS-5D system for easy interactive visualization. Proc. Visualization ’90, San Francisco, CA, IEEE, 28–35.
Holton, J. R., 1990: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. 3d ed. Academic Press, 511 pp.
Kain, J. S., and J. M. Fritsch, 1993: Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., No. 46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 165–170.
Kato, K., 1985: On the abrupt change in the structure of the Baiu front over the China continent in late May of 1979. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,63, 20–36.
Kuo, Y.-H., and G. T.-J. Chen, 1990: The Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment (TAMEX): An overview. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,71, 488–503.
——, L. Cheng, and R. A. Anthes, 1986: Mesoscale analyses of the Sichuan flood catastrophe, 11–15 July 1991. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 1984–2003.
——, J. F. Bresch, M.-D. Cheng, J. Kain, D. B. Parsons, W.-K. Tao, and D.-L. Zhang, 1997: Summary of a mini-workshop on cumulus parameterization for mesoscale models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 475–491.
Li, Y.-L., S.-Y. Tao, and C.-X. Du, 1993: An analysis of the meso-convective cloud clusters in Mei-Yu front (in Chinese). Quart. J. Appl. Meteor.,4, 278–285.
Ma, K.-Y., and L. F. Bosart, 1987: A synoptic overview of a heavy rain event in southern China. Wea. Forecasting,2, 89–112.
Molinari, J. M., and M. Dudek, 1992: Parameterization of convective precipitation in mesoscale numerical models: A critical review. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 326–344.
Nagata, M., and Y. Ogura, 1991: A modeling case study of interaction between heavy precipitation and a low-level jet over Japan in the Baiu season. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 1309–1336.
Ninomiya, K., and T. Murakami, 1987: The early summer rainy season (Baiu) over Japan. Monsoon Meteorology, C. P. Chang and T. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 93–121.
——, H. Koga, Y. Yamagish, and Y. Tatsumi, 1984: Prediction experiment of extremely heavy rainstorm by fine mesh primitive equation model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,62, 273–295.
Ogura, Y., H.-M. Juang, K.-S. Zhang, and S.-T. Soong, 1982: Possible triggering mechanisms for severe storms in SESAME-AVE IV (9–10 May 1979). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,63, 503–515.
Reisner, J., R. T. Bruintjes, and R. J. Rasmussen, 1998: Explicit forecasting of supercooled water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,124B, 1071–1107.
Xiang, X., M. Lan, and D. Wang, 1993: The mesoscale analysis of the Mei-Yu front cloud system in 1991 (in Chinese). Quart. J. Appl. Meteor.,4, 288–292.
Zhang, D., and R. A. Anthes, 1982: A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer—Sensitivity tests and comparisons with SESAME-79 data. J. Appl. Meteor.,21, 1594–1609.
——, E.-Y. Hsie, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1988: A comparison of explicit and implicit predictions of convective and stratiform precipitating weather systems with a meso-β scale numerical model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,114, 31–60.
——, K. Gao, and D. B. Parsons, 1989: Numerical simulation of an intense squall line during 10–11 June 1985 PRE-STORM. Part I: Model verification. Mon. Wea Rev.,117, 960–994.
Zhu, Q.-G., J.-R. Lin, and S.-W. Shou, 1981: Principles and Methods in Synoptic Meteorology (in Chinese). Beijing Meteorological Press, 535 pp.