We would like to thank Drs. Roy Jenne and Abraham H. Oort for providing the global rawinsonde data. J. Wang is grateful to Dr. Judith A. Curry at the University of Colorado for support to finish writing this paper. The ceilometer and surface irradiance data were obtained from the NASA/Langley Research Center EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center. We thank Mathew Rothstein for assistance in processing ISCCP data. This work is supported by the NASA Global Data and Radiation Program under the direction of Dr. Robert J. Curran and National Science Foundation under Grant 962937.
Albrecht, B. A., D. A. Randall, and S. Nicholls, 1988: Observations of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,69, 618–626.
——, C. S. Bretherton, D. Johnson, W. H. Schubert, and A. S. Frisch, 1995: The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment—ASTEX. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,76, 889–904.
AWS, 1979: The use of the skew of T, log P diagram in analysis and forecasting. AWS/TR-79/006, Air Weather Service, Scott AFB, IL, 150 pp. [Available from Air Weather Service (MAC), Scott AFB, IL 62225.].
Baum, B. A., and B. A. Wielicki, 1994: Cirrus cloud retrieval using infrared sounding data: Multilevel cloud errors. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 107–117.
Betts, A. K., 1990: Diurnal variation of California coastal stratocumulus from two days of boundary layer soundings. Tellus,42A, 302–304.
Blaskovic, M., R. Davies, and J. B. Snider, 1991: Diurnal variation of marine stratocumulus over San Nicolas Island during July 1987. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 1469–1478.
Brest, C. L., W. B. Rossow, and M. D. Roiter, 1997: Update of radiance calibrations for ISCCP. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,14, 1091–1109.
Bretherton, C. S., E. Klinker, A. K. Betts, and J. A. Coakley Jr., 1995:Comparison of ceilometer, satellite, and synoptic measurements of boundary-layer cloudiness and the ECMWF diagnostic cloud parameterization scheme during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2736–2751.
Cahalan, R. F., D. Silberstein, and J. B. Snider, 1995: Liquid water path and plane-parallel albedo bias during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 3002–3012.
Chen, C., and W. R. Cotton, 1987: The physics of the marine stratocumulus-capped mixed layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 2951–2977.
Duchon, C. E., 1979: Lanczos filtering in one and two dimensions. J. Appl. Meteor.,18, 1016–1022.
Fairall, C. W., J. E. Hare, and J. B. Snider, 1990: An eight-month sample of marine stratocumulus cloud fraction, albedo, and integrated liquid water. J. Climate,3, 847–864.
Hanson, H. P., 1991: Cloud albedo control by cloud-top entrainment. Tellus,43A, 37–48.
Intrieri, J. M., T. Uttal, W. L. Eberhard, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, B. W. Orr, and S. Y. Matrosov, 1995: Demonstrations of multiwavelength observations and advantages for cirrus cloud studies: The FIRE II 26 November 1991 case study. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 4079–4093.
Jin, Y., and W. B. Rossow, 1997: Detection of cirrus overlapping low-level clouds. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 1727–1737.
Klein, S. A., and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds. J. Climate,6, 1587–1606.
Kropfli, R. A., and Coauthors, 1995: Cloud physics studies with 8 mm wavelength radar. Atmos. Res.,35, 299–314.
Machado, L. A. T., and W. B. Rossow, 1993: Structural characteristics and radiative properties of tropical cloud clusters. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 3234–3260.
Miller, M. A., and B. A. Albrecht, 1995: Surface-based observations of mesoscale cumulus–stratocumulus interaction during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2809–2826.
——, M. P. Jensen, and E. E. Clothiaux, 1998: Diurnal cloud and thermodynamic variations in the stratocumulus transition regime: A case study using in situ and remote sensors. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 2294–2310.
Minnis, P., and E. F. Harrison, 1984: Diurnal variability of regional cloud and clear-sky radiative parameters derived from GOES data. Part I: Analysis method. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,23, 993–1011.
——, D. F. Young, C. W. Fairall, and J. B. Snider, 1992: Stratocumulus cloud properties form simultaneous satellite and island-based instrumentation during FIRE. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 317–339.
Poore, K., J. Wang, and W. B. Rossow, 1995: Cloud layer thicknesses from a combination of surface upper air observations. J. Climate,8, 550–568.
Randall, D. A., B. Albrecht, S. Cox, D. Johnson, P. Minnis, W. B. Rossow, and D. O. Starr, 1996: On FIRE at ten. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 38, Academic Press, 37–177.
Randel, D. L., T. H. Vonder Haar, M. A. Ringerud, G. L. Stephens, T. J. Greenwald, and C. L. Combs, 1996: A new global water vapor dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 1233–1246.
Rossow, W. B., L. C. Garder, and A. A. Lacis, 1989: Global, seasonal cloud variations from satellite radiance measurements. Part I: Sensitivity of analysis. J. Climate,2, 419–458.
——, A. W. Walker, D. E. Beuschel, and M. D. Roiter, 1996: International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) documentation of new cloud datasets. WMO/TD-737, World Climate Research Programme, Geneva, Switzerland, 115 pp.
Rozendaal, M. A., C. B. Leovy, and S. A. Klein, 1995: An observational study of diurnal variations of marine stratiform cloud. J. Climate,8, 1795–1809.
Sassen, K., 1991: The polarization lidar technique for cloud research:A review and current assessment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,72, 1848–1866.
Schubert, W. H., S. K. Cox, T. B. McKee, D. A. Randall, P. E. Ciesielski, J. D. Kleist, and E. L. Stevens, 1992: Analysis of sounding data from Porto Santo Island during ASTEX. Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Atmospheric Science Rep. 512, 96 pp. [Available from Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.].
Short, D. A., and J. M. Wallace, 1980: Satellite-inferred morning-to-evening cloudiness changes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 145–165.
Stubenrauch, C. J., W. B. Rossow, F. Cheruy, A. Chedin, and N. A. Scott, 1999: Clouds as seen by satellite sounders (3I) and imagers (ISCCP). Part I: Evaluation of cloud parameters. J. Climate,12, 2189–2213.
Uttal, T., L. I. Church, B. E. Martner, and J. S. Gibson, 1993: CLDSTATS: A cloud boundary detection algorithm for vertically pointing radar data. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL WPC-233, 28 pp. [Available from Taneil Uttal, NOAA/ERL/ETL, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303.].
——, E. E. Clothiaux, T. P. Ackerman, J. M. Intrieri, and W. L. Eberhard, 1995: Cloud boundary statistics during FIRE II. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 4276–4284.
Wang, J., 1997: Determination of cloud vertical structure from upper air observations and its effects on atmospheric circulation in a GCM. Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, 233 pp. [Available from Junhong Wang, NCAR/SSSF, P. O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.].
——, and W. B. Rossow, 1995: Determination of cloud vertical structure from upper-air observations. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 2243–2258.