Special thanks go to Dr. T. N. Krishnamurti for his encouragement and insightful comments throughout this study. The first author also wishes to thank Drs. H. S. Bedi, X.-L. Zou, and W. Han for their stimulating discussions. Thanks are also due to Dr. W. Han for providing all the data used in this study and Dr. H. S. Bedi for providing the anomaly correlation subroutine. The second author would like to acknowledge personal communication with Dr. J. Sela (NCEP) who suggested using biharmonic horizontal diffusion coefficients for parameter identification. Stimulating discussions with Dr. Eugenia Kalnay on the topic of parameter estimation are also acknowledged. The authors also wish to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their useful and stimulating comments and suggestions.
The support provided by NSF Grant ATM-9413050 managed by Dr. Pamela Stephens is gratefully acknowledged. This work is part of satisfying the requirements of a Ph.D. thesis directed by Prof. I. M. Navon and supported fully by the above grant. Additional support is provided by Supercomputer Computations Research Institute at The Florida State University, which is partially funded through Contract DE-FC0583ER250000.
The computer facilities are provided by the Special SCD Grant 35111089 in NCAR and National Science Foundation Grant 35111100. Additional computer support was provided by Supercomputer Computations Research Institute at The Florida State University.
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