Some information about Hurricane Danny came from reports written at NWS offices in Lake Charles, Slidell, Mobile, Tallahassee, and Taunton.
Several of the author’s TPC colleagues made important contributions to this paper. Lixion A. Avila, Miles B. Lawrence, Max Mayfield, Richard J. Pasch, and John L. Beven II provided accounts of most individual cyclones. Stephen R. Baig generated the track charts. Mark DeMaria generated the figures of monthly averages of upper-air winds. Joan E. David also helped develop graphics. Jiann-Gwo Jiing offered useful interpretation of data.
Chris Velden from the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center provided the satellite pictures.
James Franklin of the NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory Hurricane Research Division provided the G-IV flight pattern diagram and the vertical profile of wind speed in Hurricane Erika.
Climate Prediction Center, 1997: Near real-time analyses, ocean/atmosphere. Climate Diagnostics Bulletin, Vol. 97, No. 8, 82 pp. [Available from Climate Prediction Center, W/NP52, Attn: Climate Diagnostics Bulletin, 4700 Silver Hill Road, Room 605, Stop 9910, Washington, DC 20233-9910.].
Dvorak, V. F., 1984: Tropical cyclone intensity analysis using satellite data. NOAA Tech. Rep. NESDIS 11, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC, 47 pp.
Goldenberg, S. B., and L. J. Shapiro, 1996: Physical mechanisms for the association of El Niño and west African rainfall with Atlantic major hurricane activity. J. Climate,9, 1169–1187.
Gray, W. M., 1984: Atlantic seasonal hurricane frequency: El Niño and 30 mb quasi-biennial oscillation influences. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 1649–1668.
Hebert, P. J., and K. O. Poteat, 1975: A satellite classification technique for subtropical cyclones. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS SR-83, Fort Worth, TX, 23 pp. [NTIS COM 75-11220/AS.].
Jarvinen, B. R., and C. J. Neumann, 1979: Statistical forecasts of tropical cyclone intensity for the North Atlantic basin. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS NHC-10, 22 pp.
Neumann, C. J., 1972: An alternate to the HURRAN (hurricane analog) tropical cyclone forecast system. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS SR-62, 24 pp.
——, B. R. Jarvinen, C. J. McAdie, and J. E. Elms, 1993: Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871–1992. Historical Climatology Series 6-2, National Climatic Data Center, 193 pp. [Available from the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC 28801.].
NOAA, 1994: NOAA Atmospheric Research, Reconnaissance & Climatology (ARRC) high-altitude aircraft. Operational requirements. Report on source selection information, Corps Operations, 99 pp. [Available from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of NOAA Corps Operations, 1315 East–West Highway, Building 3, Silver Spring, MD 20910–3282.].
Pasch, R. J., L. A. Avila, and J.-G. Jiing, 1998: Atlantic tropical systems of 1994 and 1995: A comparison of a quiet season to a near-record-breaking one. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 1106–1123.
Simpson, R. H., 1974: The hurricane disaster potential scale. Weatherwise,27, 169 and 186.
Spratt, S. M., and D. W. Sharp, 1997: Hurricane operations at NWSO Melbourne: Applied research and real-time forecasts/warnings. Preprints, 22d Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Fort Collins, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 659–660.