Numerous discussions with E. Agee (Purdue University), D. Kristovich (ISWS), R. Derickson (SDSMT), and C. Tong (Purdue University) were greatly appreciated. Detailed and extremely helpful reviews by P. LeMone (NCAR/MMM/ASP), P. Hildebrand (NCAR/ATD), R. Wakimoto (UCLA), N. Atkins (Lyndon State College), E. Agee, and one anonymous reviewer significantly improved the quality of this manuscript. C. Wade (NCAR/RAP) and J. Saez de la Adana (Metropolitan State University) were instrumental in collecting a valuable tethersonde dataset during SCMS. SCMS field support by and stimulating discussions with W. Abshire (UCAR/COMET) were a valuable contribution to this work. A great deal of assistance from J. Tuttle (NCAR/MMM) on the radar correlation analysis is appreciated. P. May (BMRC) and W. Angevine (NOAA/AL) were very helpful with the RASS data analyses. The radar data were obtained from B. Rilling (NCAR/ATD), the ISS data were obtained from E. Miller (NCAR/ATD), and surface station data were analyzed with software and data analysis support from G. MacLean (NCAR/ATD). Wind profiler data from CASES-97 were collected within the Argonne Boundary Layer Experiments array and were thus obtained from the Argonne National Laboratory. Special gratitude is bestowed upon the NCAR/ATD and ANL field support personnel who collected excellent datasets during SCMS, Flatland/LIFT, and CASES-97.
Agee, E. M., 1987: Mesoscale cellular convection over the oceans. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,10, 317–341.
——, and P.-J. Sheu, 1978: MCC and gull flight behavior. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,14, 247–251.
Angevine, W. M., A. B. White, and S. K. Avery, 1994: Boundary layer depth and entrainment zone characterization with a boundary layer profiler. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,68, 375–385.
——, A. W. Grimsdell, L. M. Hartten, and A. C. Delany, 1998: The Flatland boundary layer experiments. Bull Amer. Meteor. Soc.,79, 419–431.
Asai, T, 1970a: Stability of a plane parallel flow with variable vertical shear and unstable stratification. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,48, 129–139.
——, 1970b: Three-dimensional features of thermal convection in a plane Couette flow. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,48, 18–29.
——, 1972: Thermal instability of a shear flow turning the direction with height. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,50, 525–532.
Brown, R. A., 1972: On the inflection point instability of a stratified Ekman boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 851–859.
——, 1980: Longitudinal instabilities and secondary flows in the planetary boundary layer: A review. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.,18, 683–697.
Brümmer, B., S. Bakan, and H. Hinzpeter, 1985: KonTur: Observations of cloud streets and open cellular structures. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,9, 281–296.
Chandrasekhar, S., 1961: Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability. Oxford, 652 pp.
Christian, T. W., and R. M. Wakimoto, 1989: The relationship between radar reflectivities and clouds associated with horizontal roll convection on 8 August 1982. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 1530–1544.
Clark, T. L., T. Hauf, and J. P. Kuettner, 1986: Convectively forced internal gravity waves: Results from two-dimensional numerical experiments. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 899–925.
Cohn, S., S. Mayor, C. Grund, T. Weckwerth, and C. Senff, 1998: The Lidars In Flat Terrain (LIFT) experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,79, 1329–1343.
Deardorff, J. W., 1972: Numerical investigation of neutral and unstable planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 91–115.
Doviak, R. J., and M. Berger, 1980: Turbulence and waves in the optically clear planetary boundary layer resolved by dual-Doppler radars. Radio Sci.,15, 297–317.
Faller, A. J., 1963: An experimental study of the instability of the laminar Ekman boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech.,15, 560–576.
——, 1965: Large eddies in the atmospheric boundary layer and their possible role in the formation of cloud rows. J. Atmos. Sci.,22, 176–184.
Fankhauser, J. C., N. A. Crook, J. Tuttle, L. J. Miller, and C. G. Wade, 1995: Initiation of deep convection along boundary layer convergence lines in a semitropical environment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 291–313.
Ferrare, R. A., J. L. Schols, E. W. Eloranta, and R. Coulter, 1991: Lidar observations of banded convection during BLX83. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 312–326.
Garratt, J. R., 1992: The Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Cambridge University Press, 316 pp.
Goldstein, R. J., and D. J. Graham, 1969: Stability of a horizontal fluid layer with zero shear boundaries. Phys. Fluids,12, 1133–1137.
Grossman, R. L., 1982: An analysis of vertical velocity spectra obtained in the BOMEX fair-weather, trade-wind boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,23, 323–357.
Horst, T. W., and J. C. Weil, 1994: How far is far enough? The fetch requirements for micrometeorological measurement of surface fluxes. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,11, 1018–1025.
——, and S. P. Oncley, 1995: Flux-PAM measurement of scalar fluxes using cospectral similarity. Preprints, Ninth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Charlotte, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 495–500.
Keeler, R. J., B. W. Lewis, and G. R. Gray, 1989: Description of NCAR/FOF CP-2 meteorological Doppler radar. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 589–592.
Kelly, R. D., 1982: A single Doppler radar study of horizontal-roll convection in a lake-effect snow storm. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 1521–1531.
——, 1984: Horizontal roll and boundary-layer interrelationships observed over Lake Michigan. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 1816–1826.
Khanna, S., and J. G. Brasseur, 1998: Three-dimensional buoyancy- and shear-induced local structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 710–743.
Krishnamurti, R., 1970: On the transition to turbulent convection. Part 1. The transition from two- to three-dimensional flow. J. Fluid Mech.,42, 295–307.
Kristovich, D. A. R., 1993: Mean circulations of boundary-layer rolls in lake-effect snow storms. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,63, 293–315.
——, N. F. Laird, M. R. Hjelmfelt, R. G. Derickson, and K. Cooper. 1999: Transitions in boundary layer meso-γ convective structures: An observational case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., in press.
Kuettner, J. P., 1959: The band structure of the atmosphere. Tellus,2, 267–294.
——, 1971: Cloud bands in the earth’s atmosphere. Tellus,23, 404–425.
Kuo, H. L., 1963: Perturbations of plane Couette flow in stratified fluid and origin of cloud streets. Phys. Fluids,6, 195–211.
Lauritsen, D. K., Z. Malekmadani, C. Morel, and R. McBeth, 1987:The Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS). Preprints, Sixth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 265–269.
LeMone, M. A., 1973: The structure and dynamics of horizontal roll vortices in the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,30, 1077–1091.
Lilly, D. K., 1966: On the instability of Ekman boundary flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,23, 481–494.
Lutz, J., B. Rilling, J. Wilson, T. Weckwerth, and J. Vivekanandan, 1997: S-Pol after three operational deployments, technical performance, siting experiences, and some data examples. Preprints, 28th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 286–287.
Malkus, J. S., and H. Riehl, 1964: Cloud structure and distributions over the tropical Pacific Ocean. Tellus,16, 275–287.
Malkus, W. V. R., 1954: Discrete transitions in turbulent convection. Proc. Roy. Soc. London,225A, 185–195.
Mason, P. J., and R. I. Sykes, 1982: A two-dimensional numerical study of horizontal roll vortices in an inversion capped planetary boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 801–823.
Militzer, J. M., M. C. Michaelis, S. R. Semmer, K. S. Norris, T. W. Horst, S. P. Oncley, A. C. Delany, and F. V. Brock, 1995: Development of the prototype PAM III/Flux-PAM surface meteorological station. Preprints, Ninth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Charlotte, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 490–494.
Miller, E. R., and A. C. Riddle, 1994: TOGA COARE integrated sounding system data report. Vol. 1A. NCAR, 61 pp. [Available from Atmospheric Technology Division, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.].
Miura, Y., 1986: Aspect ratios of longitudinal rolls and convection cells observed during cold air outbreaks. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 26–39.
Moeng, C.-H., and P. P. Sullivan, 1994: A comparison of shear- and buoyancy-driven planetary boundary layer flows. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 999–1022.
Parsons, D., and Coauthors, 1994: The integrated sounding system: Description and preliminary observations from TOGA COARE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 553–567.
Rabin, R. N., P. J. Stadler, D. J. Stensrud, and M. Gregory, 1990: Observed effects of landscape variability on convective clouds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,71, 272–280.
Rayleigh, O. M., 1916: On convection currents in a horizontal layer of fluid, when the higher temperature is on the under side. Philos. Mag. Ser.,6, 529–546.
Rothermel, J., and E. M. Agee, 1980: Aircraft investigation of mesoscale cellular convection during AMTEX 75. J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 1027–1040.
Russell, R. W., and J. W. Wilson, 1996: Aerial plankton detected by radar. Nature,381, 200–201.
Schlüter, A., D. Lortz, and F. Busse, 1965: On the stability of steady finite amplitude convection. J. Fluid Mech.,23, 129–144.
Segal, M., R. W. Arritt, J. Shen, C. Anderson, and M. Leuthold, 1997:On the clearing of cumulus clouds downwind from lakes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 639–646.
Sheu, P.-J., and E. M. Agee, 1977: Kinematic analysis and air-sea heat flux associated with mesoscale cellular convection during AMTEX 75. J. Atmos. Sci.,34, 793–801.
Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 666 pp.
Sykes, R. I., and D. S. Henn, 1989: Large-eddy simulation of turbulent sheared convection. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 1106–1118.
Walter, B. A., 1980: Wintertime observations of roll clouds over the Bering Sea. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 2024–2031.
Weckwerth, T. M., J. W. Wilson, and R. M. Wakimoto, 1996: Thermodynamic variability within the convective boundary layer due to horizontal convective rolls. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 769–784.
——, ——, ——, and N. A. Crook, 1997: Horizontal convective rolls:Determining the environmental conditions supporting their existence and characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 505–526.
Wilson, J. W., R. D. Roberts, C. Kessinger, and J. McCarthy, 1984:Microburst wind structure and evaluation of Doppler radar for airport wind shear detection. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,23, 898–915.
——, T. M. Weckwerth, J. Vivekanandan, R. M. Wakimoto, and R. W. Russell, 1994: Boundary layer clear-air radar echoes: Origin of echoes and accuracy of derived winds. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,11, 1184–1206.
Woodcock, A. H., 1940: Convection and soaring over the open sea. J. Mar. Res.,3, 248–253.
——, 1942: Soaring over the open sea. Sci. Mon.,55, 226–232.
Wurman, J., J. Straka, E. Rasmussen, M. Randall, and A. Zahrai, 1995: Design and first results from a portable, pencil-beam, pulsed Doppler radar. Preprints, 27th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vail, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 713–716.