We thank David Schultz and John Nielsen-Gammon for helpful comments during the review process. This research was supported by Grant ATM-9632580 from the National Science Foundation’s Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Mesoscale Dynamic Meteorology Program. The MM5 model code, as well as the computer resources and technical support necessary for running the model, were provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
Anthes, R. A., and T. T. Warner, 1978: Development of hydrodynamical models suitable for air pollution and other mesometeorological studies. Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 1045–1078.
Atkins, N. T., R. M. Wakimoto, and C. L. Ziegler, 1998: Observations of the finescale structure of a dryline during VORTEX 95. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 525–550.
Barnes, S. L., F. Caracena, and A. Marroquin, 1996: Extracting synoptic-scale diagnostic information from mesoscale models: The eta model, gravity waves, and quasigeostrophic diagnostic. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 519–528.
Blackadar, A. K., 1979: High resolution models of the planetary boundary layer. Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering, J. R. Pfafflin and E. N. Ziegler, Eds., Vol. 1, Gordon and Breach, 50–85.
Bluestein, H. B., 1986: Fronts and jet streaks: A theoretical perspective. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–215.
——, and T. M. Crawford, 1997: Mesoscale dynamics of the near-dryline environment: Analysis of data from COPS-91. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 2161–2175.
Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1997: The evolution of the 10–11 June PRE-STORM squall line: Initiation, development of rear inflow, and dissipation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 478–504.
Browning, K. A., 1990: Organization of clouds and precipitation in extratropical cyclones. Extratropical Cyclones: The Erik Palmén Memorial Volume, C. W. Newton and E. O. Holopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 129–153.
Byers, H. R., and R. R. Braham Jr., 1949: The Thunderstorm. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 287 pp.
Carbone, R. E., 1982: A severe frontal rainband. Part I: Stormwide hydrodynamic structure. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 258–279.
——, J. W. Conway, N. A. Crook, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1990: The generation and propagation of a nocturnal squall line. Part I: Observations and implications for mesoscale predictability. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 26–49.
Castle, J. A., J. D. Locatelli, J. E. Martin, and P. V. Hobbs, 1996: Structure and evolution of winter cyclones in the central United States and their effects on the distribution of precipitation. Part IV: The evolution of a drytrough on 8–9 March 1992. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 1591–1595.
Colman, B. R., 1990a: Thunderstorms above frontal surfaces in environments without positive CAPE. Part I: A climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 1103–1121.
——, 1990b: Thunderstorms above frontal surfaces in environments without positive CAPE. Part II: Organization and instability mechanisms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 1123–1144.
Crook, N. A., and M. W. Moncrieff, 1988: The effects of large-scale convergence on the generation and maintenance of deep moist convection. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 3606–3624.
——, T. L. Clark, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1990: The Denver cyclone. Part I: Generation in low Froude number flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 2725–2742.
Doswell, C. A., III, 1987: The distinction between large-scale and mesoscale contribution to severe convection: A case study example. Wea. Forecasting,2, 3–16.
Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State–NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 1493–1513.
Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 138 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, Information Support Services, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.].
Hobbs, P. V., and P. O. G. Persson, 1982: The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclones. Part V: The substructure of narrow cold-frontal rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 280–295.
——, J. D. Locatelli, and J. E. Martin, 1990: Cold fronts aloft and the forecasting of precipitation and severe weather east of the Rocky Mountains. Wea. Forecasting,5, 613–626.
——, ——, and ——, 1996: A new conceptual model for cyclones generated in the lee of the Rocky Mountains. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 1169–1178.
Hoskins, B. J., I. Draghici, and H. C. Davies, 1978: A new look at the ω-equation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,104, 31–38.
——, M. E. McIntyre, and R. W. Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,111, 877–946.
Huschke, R. E., Ed., 1959: Glossary of Meteorology. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 638 pp.
Kain, J. S., and J. M. Fritsch, 1993: Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., No. 46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 165–170.
Keyser, D., and T. N. Carlson, 1984: Transverse ageostrophic circulations associated with elevated mixed layers. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 2465–2478.
——, B. D. Schmidt, and D. G. Duffy, 1992: Quasigeostrophic vertical motions diagnosed from along- and cross-isentrope components of the Q vector. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 731–741.
Koch, S. E., and J. McCarthy, 1982: The evolution of an Oklahoma dryline. Part II: Boundary-layer forcing of meso-convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 237–257.
——, A. Aksakal, and J. T. McQueen, 1997: The influence of mesoscale humidity and evapotranspiration fields on a model forecast of a cold frontal squall line. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 58–83.
Lanicci, J. M., and T. T. Warner, 1997: A case study of lid evolution using analyses of observational data and a numerical model simulation. Wea. Forecasting,12, 228–252.
Lemone, M. A., M. Zhou, C.-H. Moeng, D. H. Lenschow, L. J. Miller, and R. L. Grossman, 1999: An observational study of wind profiles in the baroclinic convective mixed layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,90, 47–82.
Locatelli, J. D., J. E. Martin, J. A. Castle, and P. V. Hobbs, 1995a: Structure and evolution of winter cyclones in the central United States and their effects on the distribution of precipitation. Part III: The development of a squall line associated with weak cold-frontogenesis aloft. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2641–2662.
——, ——, and P. V. Hobbs, 1995b: Development and propagation of precipitation cores on cold fronts. Atmos. Res.,38, 177–206.
——, M. T. Stoelinga, R. D. Schwartz, and P. V. Hobbs, 1997: Surface convergence induced by cold fronts aloft and pre-frontal surges. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 2808–2820.
——, ——, and P. V. Hobbs, 1998: Structure and evolution of winter cyclones in the central United States and their effects on the distribution of precipitation. Part V: Thermodynamic and dual-Doppler radar analysis of a squall line associated with a cold front aloft. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 860–875.
Lynn, B. H., W.-K. Tao, and P. J. Wetzel, 1998: A study of landscape-generated deep moist convection. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 928–942.
Martin, J. E., 1999: Quasigeostrophic forcing of ascent in the occluded sector of cyclones and the trowal airstream. Mon. Wea. Rev.,127, 70–88.
——, J. D. Locatelli, P. V. Hobbs, P.-Y. Wang, and J. A. Castle, 1995:Structure and evolution of winter cyclones in the central United States and their effects on the distribution of precipitation. Part I: A synoptic-scale rainband associated with a lee dryline and lee trough. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 241–264.
Miller, L. J., M. A. LeMone, W. Blumen, R. L. Grossman, N. Gamage, and R. J. Zamora, 1996: The low-level structure and evolution of a dry arctic front over the central United States. Part I: Mesoscale observations. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 1648–1675.
Neiman, P. J., and R. M. Wakimoto, 1999: The interaction of a Pacific cold front with shallow air masses east of the Rocky Mountains. Mon. Wea. Rev.,127, 2102–2127.
——, F. M. Ralph, M. A. Shapiro, B. F. Smull, and D. Johnson, 1998:An observational study of fronts and frontal mergers over the continental United States. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 2521–2554.
Newton, C. W., 1950: Structure and mechanism of the prefrontal squall line. J. Meteor.,7, 210–222.
Ogura, Y., H.-M. Juang, K.-S. Zhang, and S.-T. Soong, 1982: Possible triggering mechanisms for severe storms in SESAME-AVE IV (9–10 May 1979). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,63, 503–515.
Parsons, D. B., M. A. Shapiro, R. M. Hardesty, R. J. Zamora, and J. M. Intrieri, 1991: The finescale structure of a west Texas dryline. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 1242–1258.
Purdom, J. F. W., 1976: Some uses of high-resolution GOES imagery in the mesoscale forecasting of convection and its behavior. Mon. Wea. Rev.,104, 1474–1483.
Reisner, J., R. M. Rasmussen, and R. T. Bruintjes, 1998: Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,124, 1071–1107.
Rhea, J. O., 1966: A study of thunderstorm formation along drylines. J. Appl. Meteor.,5, 58–63.
Rotunno, R., J. B. Klemp, and M. L. Weisman, 1988: A theory for strong, long-lived squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 463–485.
Schaefer, J. T., 1986: The dryline. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 549–572.
Shapiro, M. A., 1982: Mesoscale weather systems of the central United States. CIRES Tech. Rep., 78 pp. [Available from Cooperative Institute in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado/NOAA, Boulder, CO 80309].
Shaw, B. L., R. A. Pielke, and C. L. Ziegler, 1997: A three-dimensional numerical simulation of a Great Plains dryline. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 1489–1506.
Steenburgh, W. J., and C. F. Mass, 1994: The structure and evolution of a simulated Rocky Mountain lee trough. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 2740–2761.
Sun, W.-Y., and C.-C. Wu, 1992: Formation and diurnal variation of the dryline. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1606–1619.
Sutcliffe, R. C., 1947: A contribution to the problem of development. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,73, 370–383.
Thorpe, A. J., M. J. Miller, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1982: Two-dimensional convection in nonconstant shear: a model of midlatitude squall lines. Quart. J. Roy Meteor. Soc.,108, 739–762.
Trier, S. B., D. B. Parsons, and J. E. H. Clark, 1991: Environment and evolution of a cold-frontal mesoscale convective system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2429–2455.
Wang, P. Y., J. E. Martin, J. D. Locatelli, and P. V. Hobbs, 1995: Structure and evolution of winter cyclones in the central United States and their effects on the distribution of precipitation. Part II: Arctic fronts. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 1328–1344.
Weisman, M. L., W. C. Skamarock, and J. B. Klemp, 1997: The resolution dependence of explicitly modeled convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 527–548.
Wilson, J. W., and W. E. Schreiber, 1986: Initiation of convective storms by radar-observed boundary layer convergent lines. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 2516–2536.
——, and C. K. Mueller, 1993: Nowcasts of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Wea. Forecasting,8, 113–131.
Zhang, D. L., and R. A. Anthes, 1982: A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer—Sensitivity tests and comparisons with SESAME-79 data. J. Appl. Meteor.,21, 1594–1609.
Ziegler, C. L., T. J. Lee, and R. A. Pielke Sr., 1997: Convective initiation at the dryline: A modeling study. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 1001–1026.