This work is supported by NOAA Climate and Global Change Program Grant NA56GPO212, NASA Grants NAGW-5227 and NAG55161, the Australian Research Council, and Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grants 98-05-64218 and 97-05-64467. We thank Linda Hopkins, Charmaine Franklin, and Paul Dirmeyer for their helpful reviews during the early version of the manuscript. We also wish to thank two anonymous reviewers who helped significantly clarify the paper.
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