We thank C. Wunsch for providing scientific guidance and commenting on an early draft of the manuscript. We also thank C. Frankignoul and I. Fukumori for insightful discussions. Financial support was provided by SERDP/ARPA as part of the ATOC project (University of California SIO contract PO 10037358) and by NASA Grant NAGW-1048. MC was partially supported by a NASA Global Change Sciences Fellowship.
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