This research has been supported by AFSOR under Grant F4920-96-C-0020 and NSF under grant ATM-9908938. Thanks to Drs. Z. Zhang at The Florida State University and L. Wu at the University of Hawaii for many helpful discussions. Thanks also to Dr. Y. Liu of McGill University for providing the diagnosis software for model radar reflectivity calculation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division and Scientific Computing Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, for providing computing time on Cray machines.
Bender, M. A., R. J. Ross, R. E. Tuleya, and Y. Kurihara, 1993: Improvements in tropical cyclone track and intensity forecasts using the GFDL initialization system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2046–2061.
Blackadar, A. K., 1979: High resolution models of the planetary boundary layer. Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 1, 50–85.
Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State–NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 1493–1513.
Elsberry, R. L., K. A. Emanuel, G. Holland, H. Gerrish, M. DeMaria, and C. Guard, 1992: Is there any hope for tropical cyclone intensity prediction? A panel discussion. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 264–275.
Fiorino, M., and R. L. Elsberry, 1989: Some aspects of vortex structure related to tropical cyclone motion. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 975–990.
Fujita, T., 1952: Pressure distribution within a typhoon. Geophys. Mag.,23, 437–451.
Fujiyoshi, Y., T. Endoh, T. Yamada, K. Tsuboki, Y. Tachibana, and G. Wakahana, 1990: Determination of a Z–R relationship for snowfall using a radar and high sensitivity snow gauges. J. Appl. Meteor.,29, 147–152.
Grell, G. A., 1993: Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterization. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 764–787.
——, J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the fifth generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, 138 pp.
Jorgenson, D. P., and P. T. Wills, 1982: A Z–R relationship for hurricanes. J. Appl. Meteor.,21, 356–366.
Krishnamurti, T. N., H. S. Bedi, and K. Ingles, 1993: Physical initialization using SSM/I rain rates. Tellus,45A, 247–269.
——, S. K. Roy Bhowmik, D. Oosterhof, and G. Rohaly, 1995: Mesoscale signatures within the Tropics generated by physical initialization. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2771–2790.
——, R. Correa-Torres, G. Rohaly, and D. Oosterhof, 1997: Physical initialization and hurricane ensemble forecasts. Wea. Forecasting,12, 503–514.
——, W. Han, B. Jha, and H. S. Bedi, 1998: Numerical prediction of Hurricane Opal. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 1347–1363.
Kurihara, Y., and R. J. Ross, 1993: An initialization scheme of hurricane models by vortex specification. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2030–2045.
——, M. A. Bender, R. E. Tuleya, and R. J. Ross, 1995: Improvements in the GFDL hurricane prediction system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2791–2801.
Leslie, L. M., and G. J. Holland, 1995: On the bogusing of tropical cyclones in numerical models: A comparison of vortex profiles. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,56, 101–100.
Liu, D. C., and J. Nocedal, 1989: On the limited memory BFGS method for large scale optimization. Math. Programming,45, 503–528.
Liu, Y., D.-L. Zhang, and M. K. Yau, 1997: A multiscale study of Hurricane Andrew (1992). Part I: Explicit simulation and verification. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 3073–3093.
Mathur, M. B., 1991: The National Meteorological Center’s quasi-Lagrangian model for hurricane prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 1419–1447.
Molinari, J., and M. Dudek, 1992: Parameterization of convective precipitation in mesoscale numerical models: A critical review. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 326–344.
Navon, I. M., X. Zou, J. Derber, and J. Sela, 1992: Variational data assimilation with an adiabatic version of the NMC spectral model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 1433–1446.
Pasch, R. J., and L. A. Avila, 1999: Atlantic hurricane season of 1996. Mon. Wea. Rev.,127, 581–610.
Peng, M. S., B.-F. Jeng, and C.-P. Chang, 1993: Forecast of typhoon motion in the vicinity of Taiwan during 1989–90 using a dynamical model. Wea. Forecasting,8, 309–325.
Ross, R. J., and Y. Kurihara, 1995: A numerical study on influences of Hurricane Gloria (1985) on the environment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 332–346.
Serrano, E., and P. Unden, 1994: Evaluation of a tropical cyclone bogusing method in data assimilation and forecasting. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 1523–1547.
Ueno, M., 1989: Operational bogussing and numerical prediction of Typhoon in JMA. JMA/NPD Tech. Rep. 28, 48 pp. [Available from Japan Meteorological Agency, Numerical Prediction Division, 1-3-4; Ote-Machi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo, 100, Japan.].
Wang, Y., 1998: On the bogusing of tropical cyclones in numerical models: The influence of vertical structure. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,65, 153–170.
Willoughby, H. E., 1995: Mature structure and evolution. Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones, WMO Tech. Doc. WMO/TD-No. 693, 21–62.
Zhang, D.-L., and R. A. Anthes, 1982: A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer-sensitivity tests and comparisons with SESAME-79 data. J. Appl. Meteor.,21, 1594–1609.
——, E.-Y. Hsie, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1988: A comparison of explicit and implicit predictions of convective and stratiform precipitating weather system with a meso-β scale numerical model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,114, 31–60.
Zou, X., and Q. Xiao, 2000: Studies on the initialization and simulation of a mature hurricane using a variational bogus data assimilation scheme. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 836–860.
——, F. Vandenberghe, M. Pondeca, and Y.-H. Kuo, 1997: Introduction to adjoint techniques and the MM5 adjoint modeling system. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-435-STR, 110 pp.