We are grateful to Bill Kuo and Y.-R. Guo at NCAR/MMM for providing us some budget codes for an earlier version of the MM5. We are also grateful to Michael Montgomery and one anonymous reviewer for their critical comments that helped improve the quality of this paper significantly. This work was supported by NSF Grant ATM-9802391, NASA Grant NAG-57842, and ONR Grant N00014-96-1-0746. The computations were performed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
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