This investigation was supported by NSF Grant ATM-9902433. We would like to thank three anonymous reviewers for their comments that helped to improve the quality of the paper. We would like to dedicate the paper to the memory of Dr. Constantine Giannitsis whose comments and suggestions helped to improve the manuscript.
Baldwin, M. P., , and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: Propagation of the Arctic oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res, 104 , . (D24),. 30937–30946.
Bamzai, A. S., 1999: AO–snow cover relationships on interannual and decadal time scales. Proc. Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Amer. Geophys. Union, F240.
Bamzai, A. S., , and J. Shukla, 1999: Relation between Eurasian snow cover, snow depth, and the Indian summer monsoon: An observational study. J. Climate, 12 , 3117–3132.
Barnett, T. P., , L. Dümenil, , U. Schlese, , E. Roeckner, , and M. Latif, 1989: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations. J. Atmos. Sci, 46 , 661–685.
Bretherton, C. S., , and D. S. Battisti, 2000: An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27 , 767–770.
Charney, J. G., , and P. G. Drazin, 1961: Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res, 66 , 83–109.
Cohen, J., , and D. Entekhabi, 1999: Eurasian snow cover variability and Northern Hemisphere climate predictability. Geophys. Res. Lett, 26 , 345–348.
Cohen, J., , and D. Entekhabi, 2001: The influence of snow cover variability on Northern Hemisphere climate variability. Atmos.–Ocean, 39 , 35–53.
Cohen, J., , K. Saito, , and D. Entekhabi, 2001: The role of the Siberian high in the Northern Hemisphere climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett, 28 , 299–302.
Deser, C., , and M. Blackmon, 1993: Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–1989. J. Climate, 6 , 1743–1753.
Douville, H., , and J-F. Royer, 1996: Sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon to an anomalous Eurasian snow cover within the Météo-France GCM. Climate Dyn, 12 , 449–466.
Gutzler, D. S., 2000: Covariability of spring snowpack and summer rainfall across the southwestern United States. J. Climate, 13 , 4018–4027.
Gutzler, D. S., , and R. D. Rosen, 1992: Interannual variability of wintertime snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 5 , 1441–1447.
Hahn, D. G., , and J. Shukla, 1976: An apparent relationship between Eurasian snow cover and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. J. Atmos. Sci, 33 , 2461–2462.
Hartley, D. E., , J. T. Villarin, , R. X. Black, , and C. A. Davis, 1998: A new perspective on the dynamical link between the stratosphere and troposphere. Nature, 391 , 471–474.
Hurrell, J. W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269 , 676–679.
Hurrell, J. W., 1996: Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett, 23 , 665–668.
Kodera, K., , and K. Yamazaki, 1994: A possible influence of the recent polar stratospheric coolings on the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Geophys. Res. Lett, 21 , 809–812.
Kodera, K., , and H. Koide, 1997: Spatial and seasonal characteristics of recent decadal trends in the Northern Hemispheric troposphere and stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res, 102 , 19433–19447.
Kodera, K., , M. Chiba, , H. Koide, , A. Kitoh, , and Y. Nikaidou, 1996: Interannual variability of the winter stratosphere and troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74 , 365–382.
Kripalani, R. H., , and A. Kuikarni, 1999: Climatology and variability of historical Soviet snow depth data: Some new perspectives in snow–Indian monsoon teleconnections. Climate Dyn, 15 , 475–489.
Kuhn, M., 1989: The role of land ice and snow in climate. Understanding Climate Change, A. Berger, R. E. Dickinson, and J. W. Kidson, Eds., Amer. Geophys. Union, 17–28.
Kuroda, Y., , and K. Kodera, 1999: Role of planetary waves in the stratosphere–troposphere coupled variability in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Geophys. Res. Lett, 26 , 2375–2378.
Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions. J. Climate, 7 , 141–157.
Latif, M., , K. Arpe, , and E. Roeckner, 2000: Oceanic control of decadal North Atlantic sea level pressure variability in winter. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27 , 727–730.
Leathers, D. J., , and D. A. Robinson, 1993: The association between extremes in North American snow cover extent and United States temperature. J. Climate, 6 , 1345–1355.
Mehta, V. M., , M. J. Suarez, , J. V. Manganello, , and T. L. Delworth, 2000: Oceanic influence on the North Atlantic oscillation and associated Northern Hemisphere climate variations: 1959–1993. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27 , 121–124.
Mysak, L. A., , and S. A. Venegas, 1998: Decadal climate oscillations in the Arctic: A new feedback loop for atmosphere–ice–ocean interactions. Geophys. Res. Lett, 25 , 3607–3610.
North, G. R., , T. L. Bell, , R. F. Cahalan, , and F. J. Moeng, 1982: Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal function. Mon. Wea. Rev, 110 , 699–706.
Osborn, T. J., , K. R. Briffa, , S. F. B. Tett, , P. D. Jones, , and R. M. Trigo, 1999: Evaluation of the North Atlantic oscillation as simulated by a coupled climate model. Climate Dyn, 15 , 685–702.
Overland, J. E., , J. M. Adams, , and N. A. Bond, 1999: Decadal variability of the Aleutian low and its relation to high-latitude circulation. J. Climate, 12 , 1542–1548.
Perlwitz, J., , and H-F. Graf, 2001: Troposphere–stratospheric dynamic coupling under strong and weak polar vortex conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett, 28 , 274–277.
Perlwitz, J., , H-F. Graf, , and R. Voss, 2000: The leading variability mode of the coupled troposphere–stratosphere winter circulation in different climate regime. J. Geophys. Res, 105 , 6915–6926.
Polyakov, I. V., , A. Y. Proshutinsky, , and M. A. Johnson, 1999: Seasonal cycles in two regimes of Arctic climate. J. Geophys. Res, 104 , . (C11),. 25761–25788.
Ringler, T. D., , and K. H. Cook, 1999: Understanding the seasonality of orographically forced stationary waves: Interaction between mechanical and thermal forcing. J. Atmos. Sci, 56 , 1154–1174.
Robertson, A. W., , C. R. Mechoso, , and Y-J. Kim, 2000: The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the North Atlantic oscillation. J. Climate, 13 , 122–138.
Robinson, D. A., , K. F. Dewey, , and R. R. Heim Jr., . 1993: Global snow cover monitoring: An update. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 74 , 1689–1696.
Rodwell, M. J., , D. P. Rowell, , and C. K. Folland, 1999: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime North Atlantic oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398 , 320–323.
Serreze, M. C., , F. Carse, , and R. G. Barry, 1997: Icelandic low cyclone activity: Climatological features, linkages with the NAO, and relationships with recent changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Climate, 10 , 453–464.
Serreze, M. C., , M. P. Clark, , D. L. McGinnis, , and D. A. Robinson, 1998: Characteristics of snowfall over the eastern half of the United States and relationships with principal modes of low-frequency atmospheric variability. J. Climate, 11 , 234–250.
Shindell, D. T., , R. L. Miller, , G. A. Schmidt, , and L. Pandolfo, 1999:: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399 , 452–455.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett, 25 , 1297–1300.
Thompson, D. W. J., , J. M. Wallace, , and G. C. Hegerl, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13 , 1018–1036.
Thorndike, A. S., , and R. Colony, 1980: Arctic Ocean buoy program data January 1979–December 1979. Tech. Rep. 19, Polar Science Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 131 pp.
Wallace, J. M., , and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev, 109 , 784–812.
Walland, D. J., , and I. Simmonds, 1997: Modelled atmospheric response to changes in Northern Hemisphere snow cover. Climate Dyn, 13 , 25–34.
Walsh, J. E., , W. H. Jasperson, , and B. Ross, 1985: Influences of snow cover and soil moisture on monthly air temperature. Mon. Wea. Rev, 113 , 756–768.
Watanabe, M., , and T. Nitta, 1998: Relative impacts of snow and sea surface temperature anomalies on an extreme phase in the winter atmospheric circulation. J. Climate, 11 , 2837–2857.
Watanabe, M., , and T. Nitta, 1999: Decadal changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated surface climate variations in the Northern Hemisphere winter. J. Climate, 12 , 494–510.
Watanabe, M., , M. Kimoto, , T. Nitta, , and M. Kachi, 1999: A comparison of decadal climate oscillations in the North Atlantic detected in observations and a coupled GCM. J. Climate, 12 , 2920–2940.
Yamazaki, K., 1989: A study of the impact of soil moisture and surface albedo changes on global climate using the MRI GCM-I. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67 , 123–146.
Yasunari, T., , A. Kitoh, , and T. Tokioka, 1991: Local and remote responses to excessive snow mass over Eurasia appearing in the northern spring and summer climate—A study with MRI GCM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 69 , 473–487.