This research was partially funded by the Department of Geosciences, San Francisco State University, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, and the National Weather Service. The authors gratefully acknowledge David Misaki, Jan Null, and Kathy Pagan for their contributions to this work.
Bluestein, H. B., 1993: Observations and Theory of Weather Systems. Vol. II, Synoptic–Dynamic Meteorology in the Midlatitudes, University Press, 594 pp.
Braun, S. A., and J. P. Monteverdi, 1991: An analysis of an mesocyclone-induced tornado occurrence in northern California. Wea. Forecasting, 6 , 13–31.
Fujita, T., and H. Grandoso, 1968: Split of a thunderstorm into anticyclonic and cyclonic storms and their motion as determined from numerical model experiments. J. Atmos. Sci, 25 , 416–439.
Hart, J. A., and J. Korotky, 1991: The SHARP Workstation—A skew-T/hodograph analysis and research program for the IBM and compatable PC. Users' guide. NOAA/NWS NWSFO, Charlestown, WV, 62 pp.
Markowski, P. M., E. N. Rasmussen, and J. M. Straka, 1998: The occurrence of tornadoes in supercells interacting with boundaries during VORTEX-95. Wea. Forecasting, 13 , 852–859.
Monteverdi, J. P., and J. Quadros, 1994: Convective and rotational parameters associated with three tornado episodes in northern and central California. Wea. Forecasting, 9 , 285–300.
Monteverdi, J. P., and S. Johnson, 1996: A supercell with hook echo in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Wea. Forecasting, 11 , 246–261.
Monteverdi, J. P., C. Doswell III, and G. S. Lipari, 2000: Shear parameter thresholds for forecasting California tornadic thunderstorms. Preprints, 20th Severe Local Storms Conf., Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 522–525.
Stumpf, G. J., A. Witt, E. D. Mitchell, P. L. Spencer, J. T. Johnson, M. D. Eilts, K. W. Thomas, and D. W. Burgess, 1998: The National Severe Storms Laboratory mesocyclone detection algorithm for the WSR-88D. Wea. Forecasting, 13 , 304–326.
Weisman, M. L., and J. B. Klemp, 1982: The dependence of numerically simulated convective storms on vertical wind shear and buoyancy. Mon. Wea. Rev, 110 , 504–520.
Wicker, L. J., and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1993: Numerical simulation of tornadogenesis within a supercell thunderstorm. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, No. 79, Geophys. Monogr., Amer. Geophys. Union, 75–88.
Wilhelmson, R. B., and J. B. Klemp, 1978: A three-dimensional numerical simulation of splitting that leads to long-lived storms. J. Atmos. Sci, 35 , 1037–1063.