We thank the following individuals for numerous discussions in the course of this work:David Randall, Kuanman Xu, Steve Ghan, Chris Doran, Steve Krueger, and James Hack. We thank one of the anonymous reviewers whose comments led us to uncover an initial error and to improvement of the original manuscript. This research is supported by the DOE ARM Program under Grant EFG0298ER62570, and by NSF under Grant ATM901950, to SUNY at Stony Brook. It was also performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48. This work was completed when the first author, who wishes to thank Richard Rood, Franco Einaudi, Micheal Kalb, and USRA for their support, visited the Data Assimilation Office at NASA GSFC.
Barnes, S. L., 1964: A technique for maximizing details in numerical map analysis. J. Appl. Meteor.,3, 396–409.
Betts, A. K., 1973: A composite mesoscale cumulonimbus budget. J. Atmos. Sci.,30, 597–610.
Chen, Y.-L., and J. Lin, 1995: Large-scale conditions favorable for the development of heavy rainfall during TAMEX IOP 3. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2978–3002.
Cotton, W. R., M.-S. Lin, R. L. McAnelly, and C. J. Tremback, 1989:A composite model of mesoscale convective complexes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 765–783.
Cressman, G. P., 1959: An operational objective analysis scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev.,87, 367–374.
Daley, R., 1991: Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 457 pp.
Davies-Jones, R. P., 1993: Useful formulas for computing divergence, vorticity, and their errors from three or more stations. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 713–725.
Esbensen, S. K., 1975: An analysis of subcloud-layer heat and moisture budgets in the western Atlantic trades. J. Atmos. Sci.,32, 1921–1933.
——, E. I. Tollerud, and J.-H. Chu, 1982: Cloud-cluster-scale circulations and the vorticity budget of synoptic-scale waves over the eastern Atlantic intertropical convergence zone. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 1677–1692.
Frank, W. M., 1979: Individual time period analysis over the GATE ship array. Mon. Wea. Rev.,107, 1600–1616.
——, H. Wang, and J. L. McBridge, 1996: Rawinsonde budget analyses during TOGA COARE IOP. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 1761–1780.
Gallus, W. A., and R. H. Johnson, 1991: Heat and moisture budgets of an intense midlatitude squall line. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 122–146.
——, and ——, 1992: The momentum budget of an intense midlatitude squall line. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 422–450.
Ghan, S., and Coauthors, 2000: An intercomparison of single column model simulations of summertime midlatitude continental convection. J. Geophys. Res.,105, 2091–2124.
He, H. Y., J. W. McGinnis, Z. S. Song, and M. Yanai, 1987: Onset of the Asian summer monsoon in 1979 and the effect of the Tibetan Plateau. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 1966–1995.
Johnson, R. H., 1976: The role of convective-scale precipitation downdrafts in cumulus and synoptic-scale interactions. J. Atmos. Sci.,33, 1890–1910.
——, and G. S. Young, 1983: Heat and moisture budgets of tropical mesoscale anvil clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 2138–2147.
——, and J. F. Bresch, 1991: Diagnosed characteristics of precipitation systems over Taiwan during the May–June 1987 TAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2540–2557.
Jorgensen, D. P., M. A. LeMone, and J.-D. Jou, 1991: Precipitation and kinematic structure of an oceanic mesoscale convective system. Part I: Momentum transport and generation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2638–2653.
Kuo, Y.-H., and R. A. Anthes, 1984a: Accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets using SESAME-79 field data as revealed by observing system simulation experiments. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 1465–1481.
——, and ——, 1984b: Mesoscale budgets of heat and moisture in a convective system over the central United States. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 1482–1497.
——, L.-S. Cheng, and R. A. Anthes, 1986: Mesoscale analysis of the Sichuan flood catastrophe, 11–15 July 1981. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 1984–2003.
Krueger, S. K. and S. M. Lazarus, 1999: Intercomparison of multi-day simulations of convection during TOGA-COARE with several cloud-resolving and single-column models. Preprints, 23d Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 643–647.
Lafore, J.-P., J.-L. Redelsperger, and G. Jaubert, 1988: Comparison between a three-dimension simulation and doppler radar data of a tropical squall line: Transports of mass, momentum, heat, and moisture. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 3483–3500.
Leach, M. J., J. Yio, and R. T. Cederwall, 1996: Estimation of errors in objectively analyzed fields and sensitivity to number and spacing of stations. Proc. Sixth Annual ARM Science Meeting, San Antonio, TX, DOE CONF-9603149, 149–151.
Lee, C. S., 1989: Observational analysis of tropical cyclogenesis in the western North Pacific. Part II: Budget analysis. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 2599–2616.
LeMone, M. A., 1983: Momentum transport by a line of cumulonimbus. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 1815–1834.
——, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1994: Momentum and mass transport by convective bands: Comparisons of highly idealized dynamical models to observations. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 281–305.
——, G. B. Barnes, and E. J. Zipser, 1984: Momentum flux by lines of cumulonimbus over the tropical oceans. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 1914–1932.
Lewis, J. M., 1975: Test of the Ogura–Cho model on a prefrontal squall line case. Mon. Wea. Rev.,103, 764–778.
Lin, X., and R. H. Johnson, 1994: Heat and moisture budgets and circulation characteristics of a frontal squall line. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1661–1681.
——, and ——, 1996a: Kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the flow over the western Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 695–715.
——, and ——, 1996b: Heating, moistening, and rainfall over the western Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 3367–3383.
Lin, Y.-J., T.-C. C. Wang, R. W. Pasken, H. Shen, and Z.-S. Deng, 1990: Characteristics of a subtropical squall line determined from TAMEX dual-Doppler data. Part II: Dynamic and thermodynamic structures and momentum budgets. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 2382–2399.
Lord, S. J., and J. L. Franklin, 1990: The environment of Hurricane Debby (1982). Part II: Thermodynamic fields. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 1444–1459.
Luo, H. B., and M. Yanai, 1984: The large-scale circulation and heat sources over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas during the early summer of 1979. Part II: Heat and moisture budgets. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 966–989.
Mace, G. G., and T. P. Ackerman, 1996: Assessment of error in synoptic-scale diagnostics derived from wind profiler and radiosonde network data. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 1521–1534.
McBride, J. L., B. W. Gunn, G. J. Holland, T. D. Keenan, and N. E. Davidson, 1989: Time series of total heating and moistening over the Gulf of Carpentaria radiosonde array during AMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 2701–2713.
McNab, A. L., and A. K. Betts, 1978: A mesoscale budget study of cumulus convection. Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 1317–1331.
Miller, B. L., and D. G. Vincent, 1987: Convective heating and precipitation estimates for the tropical South Pacific during FGGE, 10–18 January 1979. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,113, 189–212.
Minnis, P., W. L. Smith, D. P. Garber, J. K. Ayers, and D. R. Doeling, 1995: Cloud properties derived from GOES-7 for spring 1994 ARM Intensive Observing Period using version 1.0.0 of ARM satellite data analysis program. NASA Ref. Publ. 1366, 59 pp. [Available from NASA Langley Research Center, Technical Library, MS 185, Hampton, VA 23655-5225.].
Nitta, T., 1972: Energy budget of wave disturbances over the Marshall Islands during the years of 1956 and 1958. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,50, 71–84.
——, 1977: Response of cumulus updraft and downdraft to GATE A/B-scale motion systems. J. Atmos. Sci.,34, 1163–1186.
——, and S. Esbensen, 1974: Heat and moisture budget analyses using BOMEX data. Mon. Wea. Rev.,102, 17–28.
Ooyama, K., 1987: Scale-controlled objective analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 2476–2506.
Parsons, D. B., and J. Dudhia, 1997: Observing system simulation experiments and objective analysis tests in support of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 2353–2381.
Pedigo, C. B., and D. G. Vincent, 1990: Tropical precipitation rates during SOP-1, FGGE, estimated from heat and moisture budgets. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 542–557.
Petch, J. C., and J. Dudhia, 1998: The importance of horizontal advection of hydrometers in a single column model. J. Climate,11, 2437–2452.
Randall, D. A., K. M. Xu, R. C. J. Somerville, and S. Iacobellis, 1996: Single-column models and cloud ensemble models as links between observations and climate models. J. Climate,9, 1683–1697.
Reed, R. J., and E. E. Recker, 1971: Structure and properties of synoptic-scale wave disturbances in the equatorial western Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci.,28, 1117–1133.
Sanders, F., and K. A. Emanuel, 1977: The momentum budget and temporal evolution of a mesoscale convective system. J. Atmos. Sci.,34, 322–330.
Song, J.-L., and W. M. Frank, 1983: Relationships between deep convection and large-scale processing during GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev.,111, 2145–2160.
Stokes, G. M., and S. E. Schwartz, 1994: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmaric background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 1201–1221.
Sui, C.-H., and M. Yanai, 1986: Cumulus ensemble effects on the large-scale vorticity and momentum fields of GATE. Part I: Observational evidence. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 1618–1642.
Thompson, R. M., S. W. Payne, E. E. Recker, and R. J. Reed, 1979:Structure and properties of synoptic-scale wave disturbances in the intertropical convergence zone of the eastern Atlantic. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 53–72.
Webster, P. J., and R. Lukas, 1992: TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 1377–1416.
Wu, X., 1993: Effects of cumulus esemble and mesoscale stratiform clouds in midlatitude convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 2496–2518.
——, and M. Yanai, 1994: Effects of vertical wind shear on the cumulus transport of momentum: Observations and parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1640–1660.
Yanai, M., and Li, 1994: Mechanism of heating and the boundary layer over the Tibetan Plateau. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 305–323.
——, S. K. Esbensen, and J. H. Chu, 1973: Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets. J. Atmos. Sci.,30, 611–627.
Zhang, M. H., and J. L. Lin, 1997: Constrained variational analysis of sounding data based on column-integrated conservations of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum: Approach and application to ARM measurements. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 1503–1524.