We greatly appreciate the insight provided by Dave Stauffer and Richard James. All figures were created using the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS). This work was supported by NSF Grant ATM 9806309.
Clark, T. L., 1977: A small-scale dynamic model using a terrain-following coordinate transformation. J. Comput. Phys., 24 , 186–215.
Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State–NCAR Mesoscale Model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 1493–1513.
Hodur, R. M., 1997: The Naval Research Laboratory's Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 1414–1430.
Klemp, J. B., and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1978: The simulation of three-dimensional convective storm dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 1070–1096.
Lipps, F. B., and R. S. Hemler, 1980: Another look at the thermodynamic equation for deep convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108 , 78–84.
Ooyama, K. V., 2001: A dynamic and thermodynamic foundation for modeling the moist atmosphere with parameterized microphysics. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 2073–2102.
Rutledge, S. A., and P. V. Hobbs, 1983: The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclones. VIII: A model for the “seeder-feeder” process in warm-frontal rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 1185–1206.
Satoh, M., 2002: Conservative scheme for the compressible nonhydrostatic models with the horizontally explicit and vertically implicit time integration scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 1227–1245.
Skamarock, W. C., and J. B. Klemp, 1992: The stability of time-split numerical methods for the hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic elastic equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 , 2109–2127.
Skamarock, W. C., and J. B. Klemp, 1994: Efficiency and accuracy of the Klemp–Wilhelmson time-splitting technique. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 2623–2630.
Skamarock, W. C., J. B. Klemp, and J. Dudhia, 2001: Prototypes for the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Fort Lauderdale, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J11–J15.
Soong, S-T., and Y. Ogura, 1973: A comparison between axisymmetric and slab-symmetric cumulus cloud models. J. Atmos. Sci., 30 , 879–893.
Straka, J. M., R. B. Wilhelmson, L. J. Wicker, J. R. Anderson, and K. K. Droegemeier, 1993: Numerical solutions of a non-linear density current: A benchmark solution and comparisons. Int. J. Numer. Methods, 17 , 1–22.
Tripoli, G. J., and W. R. Cotton, 1981: The use of ice-liquid water potential temperature as a thermodynamic variable in deep atmospheric models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 1094–1102.
Wicker, L. J., and W. C. Skamarock, 1998: A time-splitting scheme for the elastic equations incorporating second-order Runge–Kutta time differencing. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 1992–1999.
Wicker, L. J., and W. C. Skamarock, 2002: Time-splitting methods for elastic models using forward time schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 2088–2097.
Wilhelmson, R. B., and C-S. Chen, 1982: A simulation of the development of successive cells along a cold outflow boundary. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 1466–1483.
Xue, M., and S-J. Lin, 2001: Numerical equivalence of advection in flux and advective forms and quadratically conservative high-order advection schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 561–565.
Xue, M., K. K. Droegemeier, and V. Wong, 2000: The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS)—A multiscale nonhydrostatic atmospheric simulation and prediction model. Part I: Model dynamics and verification. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 75 , 161–193.