This research was supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG-03-95ER62102 and the National Science Foundation under Grant ATM-9812384. We thank Benoit Cushman-Roisin and two anonymous reviewers for their comments.
Adcroft, A., C. Hill, and J. Marshall, 1997: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 2293–2315.
Bleck, R., 1998: Ocean modeling in isopycnic coordinates. Ocean Modeling and Parameterization, E. P. Chassignet and J. Vernon, Eds., Kluwer Academic, 423–448.
Cushman-Roisin, B., O. E. Esenkov, and B. J. Mathias, 2000: A particle-in-cell method for the solution of two-layer shallow-water equations. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 32 , 515–543.
Dukowicz, J. K., and R. D. Smith, 1994: Implicit free-surface method for the Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 7991–8014.
Esenkov, O. E., and B. Cushman-Roisin, 1999: Modeling of two-layer eddies and coastal flows with a particle method. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 10959–10989.
Ezer, T., and G. L. Mellor, 1997: Simulations of the Atlantic Ocean with a free surface sigma coordinate ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 15647–15657.
Griffies, S. M., A. Gnanadesikan, R. C. Pacanowski, V. D. Larichev, J. K. Dukowicz, and R. D. Smith, 1998: Isoneutral diffusion in a z-coordinate ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 805–830.
Griffies, S. M., R. C. Pacanowski, and R. W. Hallberg, 2000: Spurious diapycnal mixing associated with advection in a z-coordinate ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 538–564.
Haidvogel, D. B., H. G. Arango, K. Hedstrom, A. Beckmann, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, and A. F. Shchepetkin, 2000: Model evaluation experiments in the North Atlantic Basin: Simulations in nonlinear terrain-following coordinates. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 32 , 239–281.
Haney, R. L., 1991: On the pressure gradient force over steep topography in sigma coordinate ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21 , 610–619.
Le Roux, D. Y., C. A. Lin, and A. Staniforth, 2000: A semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian finite-element shallow-water ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 1384–1401.
Lynch, D. R., J. T. C. Ip, C. E. Namie, and F. E. Werner, 1995: Comprehensive coastal circulation model with application to the Gulf of Maine. Cont. Shelf Res., 16 , 875–906.
Pacanowski, R. C., and A. Gnanadesikan, 1998: Transient response in a z-level ocean model that resolves topography with partial cells. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 3248–3270.
Roberts, M. J., R. Marsh, A. L. New, and R. A. Wood, 1996: An intercomparison of a Bryan-Cox-type ocean model and an isopycnic ocean model. Part I: The subpolar gyre and high-latitude processes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 1495–1527.
Sanson, L. Z., F. Graef, and E. G. Pavia, 1998: Collision of anticyclonic, lens-like eddies with a meridional western boundary. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 24881–24890.
Schär, C., and P. K. Smolarkiewicz, 1996: A synchronous and iterative flux-correction formalism for coupled transport equations. J. Comput. Phys., 128 , 101–120.
Smith, R. D., M. E. Maltrud, F. O. Bryan, and M. W. Hecht, 2000: Numerical simulation of the North Atlantic Ocean at one-tenth degree. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 1532–1561.
Sun, S., R. Bleck, C. Rooth, J. Dukowicz, E. Chassignet, and P. Killworth, 1999: Inclusion of thermobaricity in isopycnic-coordinate ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 2719–2729.