I would like to thank John Truesdale for developing the code for these simulations and for running the experiments, James Hack for discussions on various aspects of the simulations, and the anonymous reviewers for suggestions for improvements of the paper. Preliminary results were presented at the Eleventh Annual BMRC Modelling Workshop, Parallel Computing in Meteorology and Oceanography, 9–11 November 1999, Melbourne, Australia. This work was partially supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, U.S. Department of Energy, as part of its Climate Change Prediction Program.
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