This project was carried out within the Deutsches Ozonforschungsprogramm des Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (Grant 01 LO 9510/5), as D. P. was visiting the Cooperative Research Center for Southern Hemisphere Meteorology at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. The authors thank David Karoly for his support of this work, William Randel for providing the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data, and the Deutscher Wetterdienst and Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum for making available ECMWF analysis data.
Appenzeller, C., , H. C. Davies, , and W. A. Norton, 1996: Fragmentation of stratospheric intrusions. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 1435–1456.
Bals-Elsholz, T. M., , E. H. Atallah, , L. F. Bosart, , T. A. Wasula, , M. J. Cempa, , and A. R. Lupo, 2001: The wintertime Southern Hemisphere split jet: Structure, variability, and evolution. J. Climate, 14 , 4191–4215.
Bartels, J., , D. Peters, , and G. Schmitz, 1998: Climatological Ertel's potential vorticity flux and mean meridional circulation in the extratropical troposphere–lower stratosphere. Ann. Geophys., 16 , 250–265.
Chen, B. S., , R. Smith, , and D. H. Bromwich, 1996: Evolution of the tropospheric split jet over the South Pacific Ocean during the 1986–1989 ENSO cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 1711–1731.
Dobson, G. M. B., , D. N. Harrison, , and J. Lawrence, 1929: Measurements of the amount of ozone in the earth's atmosphere and its relation to other geophysical conditions: Part III. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A122. 456–486.
Entzian, G., , D. Peters, , K. Grasnick, , U. Feister, , K. Wege, , and U. Koehler, 1992: Eigenschaften von Ozone Mini-Holes mittlerer Breiten. Ann. Meteor., 27 , 196.
Guest, F. M., , M. J. Reeder, , C. J. Marks, , and D. J. Karoly, 2000: Inertia-gravity waves observed in the lower stratosphere over Macquarie Island. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 737–752.
Hoskins, B. J., , I. N. James, , and G. H. White, 1983: The shape, propagation and mean-flow interaction of large-scale weather systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 1595–1612.
Hoskins, B. J., , M. E. McIntyre, , and A. W. Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 , 877–946.
Hoskins, B. J., , H. H. Hsu, , I. N. James, , M. Masutani, , P. D. Sardeshmukh, , and G. H. White, 1989: Diagnostics of the global atmospheric circulation. WCRP Rep. 27, WMO Tech. Doc. 326, 217 pp.
James, P. M., , and D. Peters, 2002: The Lagrangian structure of ozone mini-holes and potential vorticity anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere. Ann. Geophys., 20 , 836–846.
James, P. M., , D. Peters, , and D. W. Waugh, 2000: Very low ozone episodes due to polar vortex displacement. Tellus, 52B , 1123–1137.
Karoly, D. J., 1989: Southern Hemisphere circulation features associated with El Nino–Southern Oscillation events. J. Climate, 2 , 1239–1252.
Karoly, D. J., 1990: The role of transient eddies in low-frequency zonal variations of the Southern Hemisphere circulation. Tellus, 42A , 41–50.
Kiladis, G. N., , and K. C. Mo, 1998: Interannual and intraseasonal variability in the Southern Hemisphere. Meterology of the Southern Hemisphere, Meteor. Monogr., No. 49, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 307–336.
McCormack, J. P., , and L. L. Hood, 1997: The frequency and size of ozone “mini-hole” events at northern midlatitudes in February. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24 , 2647–2650.
McKenna, D. S., , R. L. Jones, , J. Austin, , E. V. Browell, , M. P. McCormick, , A. J. Krueger, , and A. F. Tuck, 1989: Diagnostic studies of Antarctic vortex during the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment: Ozone miniholes. J. Geophys. Res., 94 , 11641–11668.
Mo, K. C., , and R. W. Higgins, 1998: The Pacific–South American modes and tropical convection during the Southern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 1581–1596.
Nakamura, M., 1994: Characteristics of potential vorticity mixing by breaking Rossby waves in the vicinity of a jet. Sc.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 253 pp.
Nakamura, M., , and R. A. Plumb, 1994: The effects of flow asymmetry on the direction of Rossby wave breaking. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 2031–2045.
Newman, P. A., , L. R. Lait, , and M. R. Schoeberl, 1988: The morphology and meteorology of Southern Hemisphere spring total ozone mini-holes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 15 , 923–926.
Nigam, S., 1990: On the structure of variability of the observed tropospheric and stratospheric zonal-mean zonal winds. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 1799–1813.
Norton, W. A., 1994: Breaking Rossby waves in a model stratosphere diagnosed by a vortex-following coordinate system and a technique for advecting material contours. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 654–673.
O'Sullivan, D., , and T. J. Dunkerton, 1995: Generation of inertia-gravity waves in a simulated life cycle of baroclinic instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 3695–3716.
Peters, D., , and D. W. Waugh, 1996: Influence of barotropic shear on the poleward advection of upper tropospheric air. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 3013–3031.
Plumb, R. A., and Coauthors. 1994: Intrusions into the lower stratospheric Arctic vortex during the winter of 1991/92. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 1089–1106.
Swanson, K. L., 2000: Stationary wave accumulation and the generation of low-frequency variability on zonally varying flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 2262–2280.
Thorncroft, C. D., , B. J. Hoskins, , and M. E. McIntyre, 1993: Two paradigms of baroclinic-wave life-cycle behavior. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119 , 17–55.
Vigliarolo, P. K., , C. S. Vera, , and S. B. Diaz, 2001: Southern Hemisphere winter ozone fluctuations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127 , 559–577.
Waugh, D. W., , and R. A. Plumb, 1994: Contour advection with surgery: A technique for investigating fine scale structure in tracer transport. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 530–540.
Waugh, D. W., and Coauthors. 1994: Transport of material out of the stratospheric Arctic vortex by Rossby wave breaking. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 1071–1088.