This research was supported by NSF Grants ATM 98-16306 and ATM 98-16203. Comments from Drs. H. Ochs, K. Kunkel, S. Hollinger, and three anonymous reviewers led to significant improvements in this manuscript. The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory CoastWatch program provided lake surface temperatures.
Agee, E. M., , and S. R. Gilbert, 1989: An aircraft investigation of mesoscale convection over Lake Michigan during the 10 January 1984 cold air outbreak. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 1877–1897.
Braham Jr., R. R., 1986: Cloud and motion fields in open cell convection over Lake Michigan. Preprints, 23d Conf. on Radar Meteorology and Conf. on Cloud Physics, Vol. 3, Snowmass, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., JP202–JP205.
Braham Jr., R. R., , and R. D. Kelly, 1982: Lake-effect snowstorms on Lake Michigan, USA. Cloud Dynamics, E. Agee and T. Asai, Eds., D. Reidel, 87–101.
Byrd, G. P., , R. A. Anstett, , J. E. Heim, , and D. M. Usinski, 1991: Mobile sounding observations of lake-effect snowbands in western and central New York. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 2323–2332.
Chang, S., , and R. R. Braham Jr., 1991: Observational study of the development of a snow producing convective internal boundary layer over Lake Michigan. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 2265–2279.
Chlond, A., 1988: Numerical and analytical studies of diabatic heating effect upon flatness of boundary layer rolls. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 61 , 312–329.
Clark, T. L., , T. Hauf, , and J. P. Kuettner, 1986: Convectively forced internal gravity waves: Results from two-dimensional numerical experiments. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112 , 899–925.
Cooper, K. A., , M. R. Hjelmfelt, , D. A. R. Kristovich, , N. F. Laird, , and R. G. Derickson, 2000: Numerical simulations of transitions in boundary layer convective structures in a lake-effect snow event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 3283–3295.
Garratt, J. R., 1992: The Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series, Cambridge University Press, 316 pp.
Grossman, R. L., 1982: An analysis of vertical velocity spectra obtained in the BOMEX fair-weather, trade-wind boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 23 , 323–357.
Hauf, T., , and T. L. Clark, 1989: Three-dimensional numerical experiments on convectively forced internal gravity waves. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115 , 309–333.
Hildebrand, P. H., and Coauthors. 1996: The ELDORA/ASTRIA airborne Doppler weather radar: High-resolution observations from TOGA COARE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 213–232.
Hjelmfelt, M. R., 1990: Numerical study of the influence of environmental conditions on lake-effect snowstorms over Lake Michigan. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118 , 138–150.
Hjelmfelt, M. R., , and R. R. Braham Jr., 1983: Numerical simulation of the airflow over Lake Michigan for a major lake-effects snow event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 205–219.
Kelly, R. D., 1982: A single Doppler radar study of horizontal-roll convection in a lake-effect snow storm. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 1521–1531.
Kelly, R. D., 1986: Mesoscale frequencies and seasonal snowfalls for different types of Lake Michigan snow storms. J. Appl. Meteor., 25 , 308–312.
Kristovich, D. A. R., , and N. F. Laird, 1998: Observations of widespread lake-effect cloudiness: Influences of lake surface temperature and upwind conditions. Wea. Forecasting, 13 , 811–821.
Kristovich, D. A. R., , and R. A. Steve III, 1995: A satellite study of cloud-band frequencies over the Great Lakes. J. Appl. Meteor., 34 , 2083–2090.
Kristovich, D. A. R., , R. A. Steve III, , M. R. Hjelmfelt, , R. G. Derickson, , and K. Cooper, 1999: Transitions in boundary layer meso-γ convective structures: An observational case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 2895–1909.
Kristovich, D. A. R., and Coauthors. 2000: The Lake-Induced Convection Experiment (Lake-ICE) and the Snowband Dynamics Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 519–542.
Kuettner, J. P., , P. A. Hildebrand, , and T. L. Clark, 1987: Convection waves: Observations of gravity wave systems over convectively active boundary layers. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113 , 445–467.
Laird, N. F., 1999: Observation of coexisting mesoscale lake-effect vortices over the western Great Lakes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 1137–1141.
Laird, N. F., , D. A. R. Kristovich, , and J. E. Walsh, 2003: Idealized model simulations examining the mesoscale structure of winter lake-effect circulations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 206–221.
Lohou, F., , A. Druilhet, , and B. Campistron, 1998: Spatial and temporal characteristics of horizontal rolls and cells in the atmospheric boundary layer based on radar and in situ observations. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 89 , 407–444.
Mayor, S. D., 2001: Volume imaging lidar observations and large-eddy simulations of convective internal boundary layers. Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 177 pp.
Melfi, S. H., , J. D. Spinhirne, , S-H. Chou, , and S. P. Palm, 1985: Lidar observations of vertically organized convection in the planetary boundary layer over the ocean. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 24 , 806–821.
Miles, N., 2002: Observations of Transient Linear Organization and Non-Linear Scale interactions in lake-effect clouds. Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 103 pp.
Mohr, C. G., , L. J. Miller, , R. L. Vaughn, , and H. W. Frank, 1986: The merger of mesoscale datasets into a common Cartesian format for efficient and systematic analyses. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3 , 144–161.
Mourad, P. D., , and R. A. Brown, 1990: Multiscale large eddy states in weakly stratified planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 414–438.
Muira, Y., 1986: Aspect ratios of longitudinal rolls and convection cells observed during cold air outbreaks. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 26–39.
Niziol, T. A., , W. R. Snyder, , and J. S. Waldstreicher, 1995: Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United States. Part IV: Lake-effect snow. Wea. Forecasting, 10 , 61–77.
NOAA, 1998: Daily weather maps, weekly series. [Available from NOAA/NWS/Climate Prediction Center, World Weather Building, Room 811, Washington, DC 20233.].
Oye, R., 1994: REORDER: A program for gridding radar data. Field Observing Facility, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 20 pp. [Available from Atmospheric Technology Division, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].
Oye, R., , C. Mueller, , and S. Smith, 1995: Software for radar translation, visualization, editing, and interpolation. Preprints, 27th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vol, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 359–361.
Passarelli Jr., R. E., , and R. R. Braham Jr., 1981: The role of the winter land breeze in the formation of Great Lake snow storms. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 62 , 482–492.
Pease, S. R., , W. A. Lyons, , C. S. Keen, , and M. R. Hjelmfelt, 1988: Mesoscale spiral vortex embedded within a Lake Michigan snow squall band: High resolution satellite observations and numerical model simulations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 1374–1380.
Schroeder, J. J., 2002: Observed changes to a lake-induced convective boundary layer in the vicinity of a synoptic cyclone. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 139 pp.
Schwab, D. J., , G. A. Leshkevich, , and G. C. Muhr, 1999: Automated mapping of surface water temperature in the Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes Res., 25 , 468–481.
Scott, C. P. J., , and P. J. Sousounis, 2001: The utility of additional soundings for forecasting lake-effect snow in the Great Lakes region. Wea. Forecasting, 16 , 448–462.
Sheu, P-J., , E. M. Agee, , and J. J. Tribbia, 1980: A numerical study of physical processes affecting convective cellular geometry. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 58 , 489–498.
Steve, R. A., 1996: Evolution of convective elements in lake-effect boundary layers. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 67 pp.
Sykes, R. I., , W. S. Lewellen, , and D. S. Henn, 1988: A numerical study of the development of cloud street spacing. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 2556–2569.
Wakimoto, R. M., , W-C. Lee, , H. B. Bluestein, , C-H. Liu, , and P. H. Hildebrand, 1996: ELDORA observations during VORTEX 95. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 1465–1481.
Weckwerth, T. M., , J. W. Wilson, , R. M. Wakimoto, , and N. A. Crook, 1997: Horizontal convective rolls: Determining the environmental conditions supporting their existence and characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 505–526.
Young, G. S., , D. A. R. Kristovich, , M. R. Hjelmfelt, , and R. C. Foster, 2002: A review of quasi-two-dimensional structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 997–1001.