This work was completed as part of the first author’s Master’s thesis at the University of Wisconsin—Madison (Kleist 2003), supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0121186. Both authors wish to thank Linda Keller, Amanda Adams, Drs. Jonathan Martin and John Young, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. The authors also wish to thank Dr. Yong-Run Guo of NCAR for assistance with the MM5 adjoint code.
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