We thank Profs. T. Yabe and T. Sato for their valuable comments and encouragement of this research. We also thank the referees for their constructive comments. We acknowledge Messrs. S. Shingu and M. Yamada for their help on the AFES run and Ms. Mary Golden for grammatical editing of the manuscript. The AFES model is developed on the Earth Simulator based on the CCSR/NIES AGCM. The GrADS software is used for plotting.
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