The authors would like to acknowledge those who participated in SCSMEX, especially Thomas Rickenbach (NASA GSFC), Robert Cifelli (Colorado State University), Paul Kucera (University of Iowa), Tom Keenan (BMRC, Australia), and John Gerlach (NASA WSFC) for their involvement in the radar observations and preliminary data processing. Thanks also go to Drs. Robert Adler, W.-K. Tao (NASA GSFC), and Profs. Richard Johnson and Steve Rutledge (Colorado State University) for many stimulating discussions about the MCS associated with monsoon circulation. The constructive suggestions by two anonymous reviewers also improved the presentation of this study. This research was sponsored by NASA under TRMM Grant NAG5-9699.
Atlas, D., and C. W. Ulbrich, 2000: An observationally based conceptual model of warm oceanic convective rain in the Tropics. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 2165–2181.
Barnes, G. M., and K. Sieckman, 1984: The environment of fast- and slow-moving tropical mesoscale convective cloud lines. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112 , 1782–1794.
Biggerstaff, M. I., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1991: Kinematic and precipitation structure of the 10–11 June 1985 squall line. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 3035–3065.
Bringi, V. N., and V. Chandrasekar, 2001: Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar: Principles and Applications. Cambridge University Press, 636 pp.
Carey, L. D., and S. A. Rutledge, 2000: The relationship between precipitation and lightening in tropical island convection: A C-band polarimetric radar study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 2687–2710.
Carey, L. D., R. Cifelli, W. A. Peterson, S. A. Rutledge, and M. A. F. Silva Dias, 2001: Characteristics of Amazonian rain measured during TRMM-LBA. Preprints, 30th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Munich, Germany, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 682–684.
Chong, M., P. Amayenc, G. Scialom, and J. Testud, 1987: A tropical squall line observed during the COPT 81 experiment in West Africa. Part I: Kinematic structure inferred from dual-Doppler radar data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 670–694.
Cifelli, R., C. R. Williams, D. K. Rajopadhyaya, S. K. Avery, K. S. Gage, and P. T. May, 2000: Drop-size distribution characteristics in tropical mesoscale convective systems. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 760–777.
Cifelli, R., W. A. Peterson, L. D. Carey, and S. A. Rutledge, 2002: Radar observation of the kinematic, microphysical, and precipitation characteristics of two MCSs in TRMM-LBA. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .8077, doi:10.1029/2000JD000264.
Davies-Jones, R. P., 1979: Dual-Doppler radar coverage area as a function of measurement accuracy and spatial resolution. J. Appl. Meteor., 18 , 1229–1233.
DeMott, C. A., and S. A. Rutledge, 1998: The vertical structure of TOGA COARE convection. Part I: Radar echo distributions. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 2730–2747.
Ding, Y., and Y. Liu, 2001: Onset and the evolution of the summer monsoon over the South China Sea during SCSMEX field experiment in 1998. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 79 , 255–276.
Fovell, R. G., and Y. Ogura, 1988: Numerical simulation of a midlatitude squall line in two dimensions. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 3846–3879.
Fovell, R. G., and Y. Ogura, 1989: Effect of vertical wind shear on numerically simulated multicell storm structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 3144–3176.
Golestani, Y., V. Chandrasekar, and V. N. Bringi, 1989: Intercomparison of multiparameter radar measurements. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 309–314.
Halverson, J. B., T. Rickenbach, B. Roy, H. Pierce, and E. Williams, 2002: Environmental characteristics of convective systems during TRMM-LBA. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 1493–1509.
Johnson, R. H., and P. E. Ciesielski, 2002: Characteristics of the 1998 summer monsoon onset over the northern South China Sea. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 561–578.
Jorgensen, D. P., M. A. LeMone, and B. J-D. Jou, 1991: Precipitation and kinematic structure of an oceanic mesoscale convective system. Part I: Convective line structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 2608–2637.
Jorgensen, D. P., M. A. LeMone, and S. B. Trier, 1997: Structure and evolution of the 22 February 1993 TOGA COARE squall line: Aircraft observations of precipitation, circulation, and surface energy fluxes. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 1961–1985.
Keenan, T. D., and R. E. Carbone, 1992: A preliminary morphology of precipitation systems in tropical northern Australia. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 118 , 283–326.
Keenan, T. D., and S. A. Rutledge, 1993: Mesoscale characteristics of monsoonal convection and associated stratiform precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 352–374.
Keenan, T. D., N. Zhao, F. Lei, V. Bringi, J. Nystuen, and M. Whimpey, 2001: A comparison of radar rainfall estimators during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX). Preprints, 30th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Munich, Germany, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 603–607.
Lau, K-M., and Coauthors, 2000: Report of the field operations and early results of the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 1261–1270.
Lau, K-M., X. Li, and H-T. Wu, 2002: Evolution of the large scale circulation, cloud structure and regional water cycle associated with the South China Sea monsoon during May–June, 1998. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 1129–1147.
Leise, J. A., 1981: A multidimensional scale-telescoped filter and data extension package. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL WPL-82, 18 pp.
LeMone, M. A., G. M. Barnes, E. J. Szoke, and E. J. Zipser, 1984: The tilt of the leading edge of mesoscale tropical convective lines. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112 , 510–519.
LeMone, M. A., E. J. Zipser, and S. B. Trier, 1998: The role of environmental shear and thermodynamic conditions in determining the structure and evolution of mesoscale convective systems during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 3493–3518.
Lewis, S. A., M. A. LeMone, and D. P. Jorgensen, 1998: Evolution and dynamics of a late-stage squall line that occurred on 20 February 1993 during TOGA COARE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 3189–3212.
Mohr, C. G., L. J. Miller, R. L. Vaughan, and H. W. Frank, 1986: The merger of mesoscale datasets into a common Cartesian format for efficient and systematic analyses. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3 , 143–161.
Parker, M. D., 2002: Dynamics of convective lines with leading precipitation. Preprints, 21st Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5–8.
Parker, M. D., and R. H. Johnson, 2000: Organizational modes of midlatitude mesoscale convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 3413–3436.
Robe, F. R., and K. A. Emmanuel, 2001: The effect of vertical wind shear on radiative–convective equilibrium states. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 1427–1445.
Roux, F., 1988: The West African squall line observed on 23 June 1981 during COPT 81: Kinematics and thermodynamics of the convective region. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 406–426.
Simpson, J., Ed. 1988: TRMM: A satellite mission to measure tropical rainfall. Science Steering Group Rep., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 94 pp.
Steiner, M., R. A. Houze Jr., and S. E. Yuter, 1995: Climatological characteristics of three-dimensional storm structure from operational radar and rain gauge data. J. Appl. Meteor., 34 , 1978–2007.
Tao, S., and L. Chen, 1987: A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. Monsoon Meteorology, C.-P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 60–92.
Tao, W-K., C-L. Shie, J. Simpson, S. Braun, R. H. Johnson, and P. E. Ciesielski, 2003: Convective systems over the South China Sea: Cloud-resolving model simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 2929–2956.
Tokay, A., and Coauthors, 2001: On the role of drop size distribution in TRMM rain profiling algorithm. Preprints, 30th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Munich, Germany, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 345–347.
Trier, S. B., W. C. Skamarock, M. A. LeMone, D. B. Parsons, and D. P. Jorgensen, 1996: Structure and evolution of the 22 February 1993 TOGA COARE squall line: Numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 2861–2886.
Trier, S. B., W. C. Skamarock, and M. A. LeMone, 1997: Structure and evolution of the 22 February 1993 TOGA COARE squall line: Organization mechanisms inferred from numerical simulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 386–407.
Wang, J-J., 2004: Evolution and structure of the mesoscale convection and its environment: A case study during the early onset of the southeast Asian summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 1104–1120.
Wang, T-C. C., Y-J. Lin, R. W. Pasken, and H. Shen, 1990: Characteristics of a subtropical squall line determined from TAMEX dual-Doppler data. Part I: Kinematic structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 2357–2381.
Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1995: Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 1941–1963.
Zipser, E. J., 1969: The role of organized unsaturated convective downdrafts in the structure and rapid decay of an equatorial disturbance. J. Appl. Meteor., 8 , 799–814.
Zipser, E. J., 1977: Mesoscale and convective-scale downdrafts as distinct components of squall-line structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105 , 1568–1589.
Zipser, E. J., and M. A. LeMone, 1980: Cumulonimbus vertical velocity events in GATE. Part II: Synthesis and model core structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 2458–2469.
Zipser, E. J., and K. Lutz, 1994: The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability? Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 1751–1759.