The QuikSCAT level 3 ocean wind vector data were obtained from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PODAAC) at NASA JPL in Pasadena, California (information online at http:/podaac.jpl.nasa.gov). The blended global GPCP 1DD product was provided by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Laboratory for Atmospheres (ftp://rsd.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/1dd), which develops and computes the 1DD as a contribution to the GEWEX GPCP. The ECMWF ERA-40 data were obtained from the data system section at NCAR. The NCEP–NCAR renalaysis data are provided by the NOAA–CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colorado, via their Web site (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov). The authors thank Dennis Shea for his help with the satellite products, Roger Wakimoto for motivating interest in the monsoon, George Kiladis for discussions during the early stages of this work, and Tapio Schneider for helpful comments and suggestions through the course of this study. Comments by Mike Douglas and one anonymous reviewer helped improve this manuscript. This work was supported by NASA through Fellowship NGT530499 and Grant NAG512559.
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