The authors thank Professors Robert X. Black of the Georgia Institute for Technology and Daniel J. Vimont of the University of Wisconsin—Madison for their helpful comments at various stages of this work. The authors also thank an anonymous reviewer for several helpful suggestions that improved the paper. The authors acknowledge use of the NCAR Data Support Services archive to access the NCEP–NCAR Global Reanalysis dataset (ds090.0). This project was supported by National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0121186.
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