The authors thank Yingchun Wang (IUM) and Ying-Hwa Kuo (NCAR) for their continuous support, Chaolin Zhang (IUM) for his initial efforts, which led to the current DFI implementation, Shuiyong Fan (IUM) for his work on constructions of 3DVAR cycles, Dale Barker (NCAR) and Henrik Vedel (DMI) for their careful comments, Peter Lynch (Met Éireann), Xiaohua Yang (DMI), and Jimy Dudhia (NCAR) for their suggestions, and the anonymous reviewers for their critical comments, which improved the presentation of the manuscript. The study was partially supported by Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission under Contract H020620250330, and the Ministry of Science and Technology of PRC under Contracts 2002BA904B05 and 2005BA904B05.
Barker, D. M., W. Huang, Y-R. Guo, A. J. Bourgeois, and Q. N. Xiao, 2004: A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for MM5: Implementation and initial results. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 897–914.
Benjamin, S. G., G. A. Grell, J. M. Brown, T. G. Smirnova, and R. Bleck, 2004b: Mesoscale weather prediction with the RUC hybrid isentropic-terrain-following coordinate model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 473–494.
Blackadar, A. K., 1976: Modeling the nocturnal boundary layer. Preprints, Third Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Quality, Raleigh, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 46–49.
De Pondeca, M. S. F. V., and X. Zou, 2001: Moisture retrievals from simulated zenith delay “observations” and their impact on short-range precipitation forecasts. Tellus, 53A , 192–214.
Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 3077–3107.
Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 1493–1513.
Dudhia, J., 1996: A multi-layer soil temperature model for MM5. Preprints, Sixth PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model Users Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR, 49–50.
Dudhia, J., D. Gill, Y-R. Guo, K. Manning, W. Wang, and J. Chiszar, 2000: PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user’s guide: MM5 Modeling System Version 3. MM5 Tutorial, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 390 pp.
Grell, G. A., Y-H. Kuo, and R. Pasch, 1991: Semi-prognostic tests of cumulus parameterization schemes in the middle latitudes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 5–31.
Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note 398, 122 pp.
Huang, X-Y., and P. Lynch, 1993: Diabatic digital filter initialization: Application to the HIRLAM model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 589–603.
Huang, X-Y., and H. Sundqvist, 1993: Initialization of cloud water content and cloud cover for numerical prediction models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 2719–2726.
Huang, X-Y., and X. Yang, 2002: A new implementation of digital filtering initialization schemes for HIRLAM. Tech. Rep. 53, 36 pp. [Available from HIRLAM-5, c/o Per Undén, SMHI, S-60176 Norrköping, Sweden.].
Machenhauer, B., 1977: On the dynamics of gravity oscillations in a shallow water model with applications to normal mode initialization. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 50 , 253–271.
Manning, K. W., W. Wang, and J. Dudhia, 2002: Modifications to INTERPF for Antarctic forecasts. Proc. 12th PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR, 6–7.
Wee, T-K., and Y-H. Kuo, 2004: Impact of a digital filter as a weak constraint in MM5 4DVAR: An observing system simulation experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 543–559.
Zou, X., and Y-H. Kuo, 1996: Rainfall assimilation through an optimal control of initial and boundary conditions in a limited-area mesoscale model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 2859–2882.