The authors thank Nancy Nichols, Eugenia Kalnay, and Dale Barker for helpful discussion during the preparation of this manuscript. We have also benefited from the helpful suggestions made by Arthur Hou and Sara Zhang. Inspiring discussions with Thomas Vonder Haar and Tomislava Vukicevic are very mush appreciated. The authors are also thankful to Rolf Reichle and two anonymous reviewers for providing many helpful comments that resulted in substantial improvements of the manuscript. This work was supported by the Department of Defense Center for Geosciences/Atmospheric Research Grant DAAD19-02-2-0005.
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