The development of MM5 3DVAR has been supported by many NCAR/MMM scientists and KMA/NWPD colleagues, including the collaboration projects from 2001 to 2003. The authors wish to express their thanks to Adam Clayton at the Met Office who provided extensive discussion on the implementation of the IAU scheme. This research was supported by the Post-Doctoral Fellowship Program (2002) of the Korea Science & Engineering Foundation (KOSEF). We thank Xiang-Yu (Hans) Huang and two reviewers for providing comments that helped to improve this manuscript.
Baker, W. E., , S. Bloom, , H. Woollen, , M. Nestler, , E. Brin, , T. Schlatter, , and T. Branstrator, 1987: Experiments with a three-dimensional statistical objective analysis scheme using FGGE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 272–296.
Barker, D. M., , W. Huang, , Y-R. Guo, , and A. Bourgeois, 2003: A three-dimensional Variational (3DVAR) Data Assimilation System for use with MM5. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-453+STR, 68 pp.
Barker, D. M., , W. Huang, , Y-R. Guo, , and Q. N. Xiao, 2004: A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for MM5: Implementation and initial results. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 897–914.
Bloom, S. C., , L. L. Takacs, , A. M. da Silva, , and D. Ledvina, 1996: Data assimilation using Incremental Analysis Updates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 1256–1271.
Clayton, A., 2003: Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) scheme. Unified Model Documentation Paper 31, UK Met Office, 20 pp.
Daley, R., 1979: The application of nonlinear normal mode initialization to an operational forecast model. Atmosphere. Atmos.–Ocean, 17 , 97–124.
Daley, R., 1991: : Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 457 pp.
Fillion, L., , H. L. Mitchell, , H. Richie, , and A. Staniforth, 1995: The impact of a digital filter finalization technique in a global data assimilation system. Tellus, 47A , 304–323.
Grell, G. A., , J. Dudhia, , and D. R. Stauffer, 1995: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398 +STR, 122 pp.
Guo, Y-R., , D-H. Shin, , J-H. Lee, , Q-N. Xiao, , D. M. Barker, , and Y-H. Kuo, 2002: Application of MM5 3DVAR system for heavy rain case over Korea Peninsula. Preprints, 12th PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model User Workshop, Boulder, CO, 161–165.
Kasahara, A., , R. C. Balgovind, , and B. B. Katz, 1988: Use of satellite radiometric imagery data for improvement in the analysis of divergent wind in the tropics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 866–883.
Lee, M-S., , and D-K. Lee, 2003: An application of a weakly constrained 4DVAR to satellite data assimilation and heavy rainfall simulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 2151–2176.
Lynch, P., , and X-Y. Huang, 1993: Diabatic digital-filtering initialization: Application to the HIRLAM model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 589–603.
Lynch, P., , D. Giard, , and V. Ivanovici, 1997: Improving the efficiency of a digital filtering scheme for diabatic initialization. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 1976–1982.
Lynch, P., , R. McGrath, , and A. McDonald, 1999: Digital filter initialization for HIRAM. HIRAM Tech. Rep. 42, 22 pp. [Available from HIRLAM-5, c/o Per Unden, SMHI, S-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden.].
Parrish, D. F., , and J. C. Derber, 1992: The National Meteorological Center’s spectral-interpolation analysis system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 , 1747–1763.
Polavarapu, S., , S. Ren, , A. M. Clayton, , D. Sankey, , and Y. Rochon, 2004: On the relationship between incremental analysis updating and incremental digital filtering. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 2495–2502.
Press, W. H., , S. A. Teukolsky, , W. T. Vetterling, , and B. P. Flannery, 1996: Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77. 2d ed. Cambridge University Press, 933 pp.
Puri, K., 1985: Sensitivity of low-latitude velocity potential fields in a numerical weather-prediction model to initial conditions, initialization, and physical processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113 , 449–466.
Puri, K., , and M. J. Miller, 1990: The use of satellite data in the specification of convective heating for diabatic initialization and moisture adjustment in numerical weather prediction models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118 , 67–93.
Semazzi, F. H. M., , and I. M. Navon, 1986: A comparison of the bounded derivative and the normal-mode initialization methods using real data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 2106–2121.
Xiao, Q., , J. Sun, , W-C. Lee, , E. Lim, , Y-R. Guo, , D. M. Barker, , and Y-H. Kuo, 2003: Assimilation of Doppler radial velocities using a regional 3DVAR system and its impacts on mesoscale weather prediction over the Korean Peninsula. Preprints, 13th PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model User Workshop, NCAR, Boulder, CO, 101–104.
Zhang, D., , and R. A. Anthes, 1982: A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer-sensitivity tests and comparisons with SESAME-79 data. J. Appl. Meteor., 21 , 1594–1609.