Comments on this study and on Part I by three anonymous reviewers helped to strengthen our presentation, and these are gratefully acknowledged. This research has been sponsored by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Environment Canada, and the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences. Gridded data were obtained through the Climate Diagnostics Center at Boulder, Colorado. Data visualization and feature tracking were facilitated by the GrADS software obtained from the Institute of Global Environment and Society at Calverton, Maryland.
Chang, E. K. M., 2000: Wave packets and life cycles of troughs in the upper troposphere: Examples from the Southern Hemisphere summer season of 1984/85. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 25–50.
Chang, E. K. M., , and I. Orlanski, 1994: On energy flux and group velocity of waves in baroclinic flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 3823–3828.
Chang, E. K. M., , and D. B. Yu, 1999: Characteristics of wave packets in the upper troposphere. Part I: Northern Hemisphere winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 1708–1728.
Danielson, R. E., , J. R. Gyakum, , and D. Straub, 2004: Examples of downstream baroclinic development among 41 coldseason eastern North Pacific cyclones. Atmos.–Ocean, 42 , 235–250.
Danielson, R. E., , J. R. Gyakum, , and D. Straub, 2006: A case study of downstream baroclinic development over the North Pacific Ocean. Part I: Dynamical impacts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 1534–1548.
Edmon, H. J., , B. J. Hoskins, , and M. E. McIntyre, 1980: Eliassen–Palm cross sections for the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 2600–2616.
Hoskins, B. J., 1990: Theory of extratropical cyclones. Extratropical Cyclones: The Erik Palmén Memorial Volume, C. W. Newton, and E. O. Holopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 63–80.
Joung, C. H., , and M. H. Hitchman, 1982: On the role of successive downstream development in East Asian polar air outbreaks. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 1224–1237.
Lackmann, G. M., , D. Keyser, , and L. F. Bosart, 1999: Energetics of an intensifying jet streak during the Experiment on Rapidly Intensifying Cyclones over the Atlantic (ERICA). Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 2777–2795.
Magnusdottir, G., , and P. H. Haynes, 1996: Wave activity diagnostics applied to baroclinic wave life cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 2317–2353.
Orlanski, I., 1994: Energy dispersion vs baroclinic conversion in the life cycle of atmospheric eddies. Proc. Int. Symp. on Life Cycles of Extratropical Cyclones, Vol. II, Bergen, Norway, Aase Grafiske A/S, 313–317.
Orlanski, I., , and J. Katzfey, 1991: The life cycle of a cyclone wave in the Southern Hemisphere. Part I: Eddy energy budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 1972–1998.
Orlanski, I., , and E. K. M. Chang, 1993: Ageostrophic geopotential fluxes in downstream and upstream development of baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 212–225.
Orlanski, I., , and J. P. Sheldon, 1993: A case of downstream baroclinic development over western North America. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 2929–2950.
Plumb, R. A., 1986: Three-dimensional propagation of transient quasi-geostrophic eddies and its relationship with the eddy forcing of the time-mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 1657–1678.
Takaya, K., , and H. Nakamura, 1997: A formulation of a wave-activity flux for stationary Rossby waves on a zonally varying basic flow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24 , 2985–2988.
Takaya, K., , and H. Nakamura, 2001: A formulation of a phase-independent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 608–627.
Thorncroft, C. D., , B. J. Hoskins, , and M. E. McIntyre, 1993: Two paradigms of baroclinic-wave life-cycle behaviour. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119 , 17–55.
Vanneste, J., , and T. G. Shepherd, 1998: On the group-velocity property for wave-activity conservation laws. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 1063–1068.
Zimin, A. V., , I. Szunyogh, , D. J. Patil, , B. R. Hunt, , and E. Ott, 2003: Extracting envelopes of Rossby wave packets. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 1011–1017.